Seale A.,University of Bristol |
Finn A.,University of Bristol |
Finn A.,Education Center
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011
Purpose of review: The present review discusses recent advances, challenges and opportunities for the best use of conjugate vaccines now and in the future. Recent findings: Direct protection in young children may be short-lived and programme effectiveness may depend heavily on indirect protection (herd immunity). Pneumococcal carriage serotype replacement has been widely reported following vaccine implementation. Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is being trialled in the elderly. Vaccination in west Africa against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (Men A), a new monovalent conjugate vaccine, was commenced in December 2010. New conjugate vaccines against, for example, Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus agalactiae, are being developed and tested in clinical trials. Summary: Conjugate vaccines have been extensively used to immunize children, resulting in significant decreases in childhood morbidity and mortality. Since their introduction, evidence has grown that protection against disease is due to both direct and indirect protection (herd immunity). The optimization of priming and booster dose regimens in existing paediatric vaccination programmes, aiming for maximal and sustained direct and indirect protection using as few doses per child as possible, may broaden conjugate vaccine impact and augment cost-effectiveness in the future. This may be particularly important in strategies for wider global use of conjugate vaccines in children, as well as use in adults and the elderly. Challenges such as pneumococcal serotype replacement make ongoing surveillance of carriage and invasive disease crucial and will have implications for conjugate reformulation and the development of alternative vaccines. New conjugate vaccines for other pathogens currently in clinical trials have the potential to reduce invasive bacterial disease further, particularly in resource-poor settings. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kamimura R.,Education Center
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012
In this paper, we propose a new type of learning method in which individuality and collectivity are separated and unified to control the characteristics of neurons. This unification is expected to enhance the characteristics shared by individual and collective outputs, while the characteristics specific to them are weakened. We applied the method to self-organizing maps to demonstrate the utility of unification. In self-organizing maps, the introduction of unification has the effect of controlling cooperation among neurons. Experimental results on the glass identification problem from the machine learning database showed that explicit class boundaries could be obtained by introducing the unification. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Lux A.L.,Education Center
Brain and Development | Year: 2010
Although most febrile seizures do no harm and two-thirds of initial cases have no witnessed recurrence, the seizures cause much family anxiety, and are sometimes prolonged. In rare cases they are the first evidence of important epilepsy syndromes or are implicated in the development of epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis in later life. There have been trials of prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic drugs including carbamazepine, diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and sodium valproate. Several strategies have been employed with these drugs, including continuous secondary prophylaxis, intermittent secondary prophylaxis in response to later episodes of fever, and rescue medication early in the course of further seizures. Another treatment strategy has been using one or more antipyretic agents in early response to fever using agents such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Over the years, researchers have identified a variety of clinical, genetic, and environmental risk factors for more severe or prolonged febrile seizures and higher risk of recurrence. This review evaluates the rationale for secondary prophylaxis of febrile seizures, the potential effectiveness of such treatment, and whether it can be recommended as a general approach to treating febrile seizures or as an approach to be used in groups identified to be at increased risk. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamimura R.,Education Center
Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks | Year: 2011
In this paper, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called "information-theoretic cooperative learning". In this method, two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks are prepared. The roles of these networks are controlled by the cooperation parameter α. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning. We applied the method to the automobile data from the machine learning database. Experimental results showed that cooperation control could be used to increase mutual information on input patterns and to produce clearer class structure in SOM. © 2011 IEEE.
Kamimura R.,Education Center
Neurocomputing | Year: 2011
In this paper, we propose a new information-theoretic method to simplify the computation of information and to unify several methods in one framework. The new method is called "supposed maximum information," used to produce humanly comprehensible representations in competitive learning by taking into account the importance of input units. In the new learning method, by supposing the maximum information of input units, the actual information of input units is estimated. Then, the competitive network is trained with the estimated information in input units. The method is applied not to pure competitive learning, but to self-organizing maps, because it is easy to demonstrate visually how well the new method can produce more interpretable representations. We applied the method to three well-known sets of data, namely, the Kohonen animal data, the SPECT heart data and the voting data from the machine learning database. With these data, we succeeded in producing more explicit class boundaries on the U-matrices than did the conventional SOM. In addition, for all the data, quantization and topographic errors produced by our method were lower than those by the conventional SOM. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.