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Etkin A.,Stanford University | Etkin A.,Education and Clinical Center | Buchel C.,University of Hamburg | Gross J.J.,Stanford University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Emotions are powerful determinants of behaviour, thought and experience, and they may be regulated in various ways. Neuroimaging studies have implicated several brain regions in emotion regulation, including the ventral anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, as well as the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Drawing on computational approaches to value-based decision-making and reinforcement learning, we propose a unifying conceptual framework for understanding the neural bases of diverse forms of emotion regulation. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Tsai J.,Education and Clinical Center
Evaluation and program planning | Year: 2013

Child care and parenting needs of adults with mental illness are of growing concern, especially among those seeking Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health services. One area of interest concerns the possible benefits that on-site child care could have for improving veterans' access to VA mental health care. Child care programs are currently being piloted at the VA for the first time, although the need for them has not been evaluated. We conducted a brief survey of a convenience sample of 147 veterans (132 men, 15 women) seeking mental health care at outpatient clinics and/or at a psychiatric rehabilitation center at one VA. Participants were asked about their attitudes and experiences regarding child care and parenting support at the VA. Of the 52 (35.4%) participants who responded and had children under 18, the majority of both men and women surveyed agreed that the VA should offer child care services and that they would use child care services at the VA if it were available. These results are based on a small sample of participants, but they may contribute to ongoing discussion and efforts to develop "family-friendly" mental health services. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mohamed S.,Education and Clinical Center | Mohamed S.,Yale University
Psychiatric Quarterly | Year: 2013

There has been increasing concern in recent years about the availability of mental health services for people with serious mental illness in rural areas. To meet these needs the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Rural Access Networks for Growth Enhancement (RANGE) program, in 2007, modeled on the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model. This study uses VA administrative data from the RANGE program (N = 343) to compare client characteristics at program entry, patterns of service delivery, and outcomes with those of Veterans who received services from the general VA ACT-like program (Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) (N = 3,077). Veterans in the rural program entered treatment with similar symptom severity, less likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia and having had long-term hospitalization, but significantly higher suicidality index scores and greater likelihood of being dually diagnosed compared with those in the general program. RANGE Veterans live further away from their treatment teams but did not differ significantly in measures of face-to-face treatment intensity. Similar proportions of RANGE and MHICM Veterans were reported to have received rehabilitation services, crisis intervention and substance abuse treatment. The rural programs had higher scores on overall satisfaction with VA mental health care than general programs, slightly poorer outcomes on quality of life and on the suicidality index but no significant difference on other outcomes. These data demonstrate the clinical need, practical feasibility and potential effectiveness of providing intensive case management through small specialized case management teams in rural areas. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA). Source

Hall K.S.,Education and Clinical Center | McAuley E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Journal of Physical Activity and Health | Year: 2011

Background: Few studies have examined physical activity behavior and its associated outcomes in older adults living in retirement communities. Guided by the disablement model and social cognitive theory, we tested a cross-sectional model in which physical activity was hypothesized to influence disability indirectly through self-efficacy, functional performance, and functional limitations. Methods: One hundred six older men and women residing in independent-living (ILF) assisted-living (ALF) facilities completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, function, and disability. Objective assessments of physical activity and functional performance were conducted using waist-mounted accelerometers and the short physical performance battery (SPPB), respectively. Path analysis was used to examine the proposed associations among constructs. Results: Older adults who were more active were also more efficacious and had better physical function and fewer functional limitations. Only higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with less disability. The effects of individuallevel covariates were also examined. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study is among the first to examine the associations between physical activity, function, and disability among older adults residing in ILFs and ALFs. Future research addressing the physical and psychological needs of this growing population is warranted. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source

Light G.A.,Education and Clinical Center | Light G.A.,University of California at San Diego | Swerdlow N.R.,University of California at San Diego
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2015

Advances in psychiatric neuroscience have transformed our understanding of impaired and spared brain functions in psychotic illnesses. Despite substantial progress, few (if any) laboratory tests have graduated to clinics to inform diagnoses, guide treatments, and monitor treatment response. Providers must rely on careful behavioral observation and interview techniques to make inferences about patients' inner experiences and then secondary deductions about impacted neural systems. Development of more effective treatments has also been hindered by a lack of translational quantitative biomarkers that can span the brain-behavior treatment knowledge gap. Here, we describe an example of a simple, low-cost, and translatable electroencephalography (EEG) measure that offers promise for improving our understanding and treatment of psychotic illnesses: mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is sensitive to and/or predicts response to some pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions and accounts for substantial portions of variance in clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia (SZ). This measure has recently been validated for use in large-scale multisite clinical studies of SZ. Finally, MMN greatly improves our ability to forecast which individuals at high clinical risk actually develop a psychotic illness. These attributes suggest that MMN can contribute to personalized biomarker-guided treatment strategies aimed at ameliorating or even preventing the onset of psychosis. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

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