Educare Institute of Dental science

Malappuram, India

Educare Institute of Dental science

Malappuram, India
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Rammanohar M.,Educare Institute of Dental science | Raju Ragavendra T.,Peoples Dental Academy
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2010

Dental hard tissues are good candidates for age estimation as they are less destructive and procedures to determine age can be easily performed. Although cementum annulations and cementum thickness are important parameters in this regard, they are seldom used. This study was undertaken to review the methods, difficulties in execution of techniques, and accuracy of cementum thickness and annulations in estimating the age. Unstained and stained ground sections of tooth were used to measure cemental thickness and count cemental annulations based on which age was estimated and was compared with known age. Although there was positive relation between cemental thickness and annulations with age, only in 1-1.5% of cases, age could be predicted with accuracy. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Jithesh T.K.,MES Medical College | Riju R.,Mangalore University | Jayapal V.,Hrithyalaya Institute of Preventive Cardiology | Vijayakumar T.,Educare Institute of Dental science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

A study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of GFR to assess the renal involvement in hypertension. GFR was assessed using the conventional blood urea and serum creatinine values and the eGFR is calculated based on serum creatinine by using the MDRD formula and Cockcroft - Gault formula. The values obtained were compared with serum Cystatin C and Cystatin based eGFR. It was observed that even though serum creatinine based eGFR is a good marker for renal assessment this method is lacks sensitivity and cannot be applied in GFR blind area. Cystatin C, Cystatin C based eGFR were found to be more reliable and sensitive than the earlier markers particularly in areas were the decrease in GFR is marginal. Hence it is suggested that Cystatin C and Cystatin C based eGFR are better markers for the assessment of renal involvement in hypertension.

Simon A.S.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Vijayakumar T.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the entire world population. The conventional risk factors of CAD include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, family history, smoking etc. These factors contribute only 50 % of the total risk of CAD. For providing a complete risk assessment in CAD, it is mandatory to have well-planned clinical, biochemical and genetic studies in patients with CAD and subjects who are at risk of developing CAD. In this review an attempt is made to critically evaluate the conventional and emerging risk factors which predispose the individual to CAD. Specifically, the molecular basis of CAD including high oxidative stress, low antioxidant status and increased DNA damage are covered. A comprehensive and multifactorial approach to the problem is the better way to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease. © 2013 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India.

Simon A.S.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science | Chithra V.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science | Vijayan A.,Pushpagiri Institute of Medical science | Dinesh R.D.,Center for Advanced Genetic Studies | Vijayakumar T.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2013

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an indicator of oxidative stress, and mean break per cell (b/c) values, which is an indicator of decreased DNA repair efficiency, were found to be significantly increased in patients compared to normal controls (P < 0.05) whereas ascorbic acid and GSH were found to be lower among patients than the control group. It has been found that elevated oxidative stress decreased antioxidant level and decreased DNA repair efficiency can contribute to the development of CAD. This study also showed that high MDA, low ascorbic acid and GSH were significantly associated with high b/c value. © 2013 Indian Academy of Sciences.

Mathew R.,Mangalore University | Pai V.R.,Mangalore University | Vijayakumar T.,Educare institute of dental science
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Transient kidney damage is identified in type-2 Diabetes Mellitus(DM) and Hypertension(HT). Most of the Indian studies that evaluate the association between renal damage and DM and HT were carried out with the conventional markers. In this study renal involvement in patients with DM, HT and both were assessed by conventional biomarkers (urea, creatinine, uricacid, urine protein-creatinine ratio(PCRatio) and compared with newer markers (cystatinC and microalbuminuria). Results of 41 patients are compared with 19 age and sex matched controls. Among the conventional markers creatinine and PC-ratio were found to be better markers than urea. Creatinine based estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) was unable to predict the early renal dysfunction. Among new markers cystatinC, microalbuminuria and cystatinC based eGFR were found to be more reliable as predictive markers. So from this study it can be concluded that the newer markers are better to assess the early renal damage in HT and in DM.

Divya K.S.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research | Year: 2014

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare idiopathic disease characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. LCH affects five children per million population. The peak incidence is from 1 to 4 years of age. LCH involves the head and neck region quite commonly. Oral soft tissue lesions are also common. The differential diagnosis of oral LCH includes leukemia, neutropenia, prepubertal periodontitis, hypophosphatasia, fibrous dysplasia, and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome. The prognosis of LCH depends on early detection and appropriate management. Surgical management alone is used in 50% of cases with an additional 23% of the lesions being treated with both surgery and radiation therapy. A case of LCH in a 6-year-old girl involving the mid root level of developing first permanent molar with a floating developing tooth bud of permanent second molar mimicking an inflammation is reported.

Kumar K.,P.A. College | Manohar M.R.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Analytical and Quantitative Cytology and Histology | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of formalin fixation time on histomorphometry by changing the fixation time and the effect of the age of processing solutions on histomorphometry by processing tissues in solutions of varying ages. STUDY DESIGN: The study consisted of two parts. The first part examined the effect of formalin fixation time on histomorphometry by changing the fixation time. The second part looked at the the effect of the age of processing solutions on histomorphometry by processing tissues in solutions of different ages. RESULTS: In first part of the study, cytoplasmic expansion was observed between 24 hours and 1 week of fixation, followed by shrinkage thereafter. The nuclear area showed progressive shrinkage from 24 hours to 1 month. In second part of the study, tissues processed in fresh solution showed more shrinkage than tissues processed in used solution. CONCLUSION: It is important to be aware of changes in histomorphometric values resulting from a variable fixation period and age of processing solutions. It is also important to standardize the histomorphometric procedure or take into account the effect of factors that influence morphometric values to minimize the errors due to the same. © Science Printers and Publishers, Inc.

Mathew B.,Vinayaka Missions University | Dinesh Roy D.,Center for Advanced Genetic Studies | Vijaya Kumar T.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Objective: Sepsis is a life-threatening disease which is asso-ciated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The critically ill patients often manifest a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) which is independent of an infection. The early diagnosis of different severities of sepsis is important for an early implementation of the specific therapies. Our objec-tive was to evaluate the diagnostic and the prognostic values of blood Procalcitonin (PCT) in cases of bacterial septicaemia in children. Methods: The total sample comprised of 150 subjects who were admitted to the ICU with septicaemia and 50 normal, healthy, age and sex matched children. The first sample was collected at the time of admission, before the start of the anti-biotic therapy (T0). A second sample was collected at 24 hours (T24) and a final sample was collected at 96 hours (T96). A PCT value of > 0. 5ng/ml was accepted as positive. Results: 63% of the children who were diagnosed with a bac-terial aetiology showed detectable blood PCT levels with higher concentrations, while in the children who were diagnosed with a viral aetiology, only 22. 2% had detectable PCT levels, but in lower concentrations. The mean percentage reduction in the PCT value among the bacterial infection subjects was 44. 39 ± 41. 82 as compared to that in the viral infection subjects (5. 71 ± 26. 68) and in the subjects where the aetiology was not es-tablished (5. 71 ± 26. 68). Conclusion: The results which were obtained in our study con-firmed that the PCT levels were a better marker for the bacte-rial infections. The PCT measurements may be used as a guide to the antibiotic therapy in critically ill children with suspected sepsis.

Suresh S.,Mahatma Gandhi University | Vijayakumar T.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) is a form of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) characterized by elevated circulating levels of androgens derived from the ovary. Insulin resistance (IR) is the most common etiological factor in women with FOH. IR causes the generation of increased oxidative stress (OS) and diminished antioxidant status. OS is directly correlated with both IR and testosterone levels, which consequently contribute to endocrine and biochemical alterations in FOH women. In the current study, elevations in total testosterone, free testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels accompanied by a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level leading to higher LH:FSH ratio were the prominent endocrine changes observed in women with FOH. A significant increase in fasting blood levels of glucose and insulin, as well as an elevated IR were also seen in FOH women, as compared to their age matched controls. Women with FOH have higher pro-oxidant and lower anti-oxidant levels in blood than their age matched controls. In FOH women, elevations in LH:FSH ratio and OS are correlated more with hyperandrogenemia than with IR. Of the androgens, free rather than total testosterone has better positive correlations with elevated LH:FSH ratio and OS, and hence, the former is a better predictive marker for the development of biochemical PCOS in women with FOH. © 2014, Association of Clinical Biochemists of India.

Naga Sirisha C.,Cks Theja Institute Of Dental Science And Research | Manohar R.,Educare Institute of Dental science
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Context: Free radical associated damages play a major role in causation of cancer in tobacco habituates. The free radicals released by tobacco bring about alterations in antioxidant levels in humans and these free radical associated damages are reflected through antioxidant enzyme activities in blood. Aims: To evaluate the effects of tobacco consumption on the erythrocyte Antioxidant enzymes-Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) as they act as first line of defense antioxidants. Materials and Methods: A case control study comprising of 4 study groups of healthy controls (n = 27), smokers (n = 27), tobacco chewers (n = 30) and combination habit (n = 22) were included. Erythrocyte SOD and GPx enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometry. The results were statistically analyzed using one way-Anova and Mann Whitney test. Results: The data analysis revealed an alteration in mean SOD levels as it was decreased in cases compared to control group where as mean GPx was seen to be increased in cases compared to controls. When SOD and GPx were compared for the frequency and duration of habit, GPx showed a significant decrease in chewers with increase in frequency and duration of habit. Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

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