Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.2-03 | Award Amount: 4.94M | Year: 2011
EAU4Food seeks to address the need for new approaches to increase food production in irrigated areas in Africa, while ensuring healthy and resilient environments. Potential pitfalls of introducing innovations in local farming systems, like limited adoption by farmers and trade-off effects to other (environmental) systems are overcome by, respectively, i) utilizing a true transdisciplinary approach, which involves the active participation of all stakeholders in all relevant disciplines, and ii) by determining and respecting so called sustainable production thresholds. EAU4Food is executed in four irrigated areas in Africa, viz. Southern Africa (Mozambique and South-Africa), Tunisia, Mali and Ethiopia to fully benefit from the potential of cross distributing promising strategies and innovations. At each site, key indicators, risk factors, farm strategies and biophysical parameters are monitored for identification of current constraints to food production and to evaluate agro-ecological and socio-economic impacts of improved practices and/or innovations after implementation. Results of EAU4Food are distilled into tailor made support tables and guidelines for different user groups. These support tables and guidelines support decision making processes at local level by overseeing short-term and long-term effects of alternative practices and improved strategies. EAU4Food is expected to have significant positive impacts on agricultural production at farm level for many years to come, and on wider policy processes at national and trans-national levels. To enlarge and maintain the impact of EAU4Food, capacity building programmes are developed at different levels, going from farmer to farmer exchange up to exchange of scientific personnel. Moreover, further exploitation of the results of EAU4Food is supported via other mediums such as songs of success, documentaries, school programmes, policy briefs, fact-books and scientific publications and presentations.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2012.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.28M | Year: 2013
Countries striving to provide universal health care coverage and achieve the Millennium Development Goals are increasingly implementing close-to-community (CTC) health services. There is a need for health systems to understand the context and conditions in which these services operate in order to realise their potential. Working with some of the most respected and widely quoted close-to-community services we will identify how CTC services can best be delivered and document generic lessons for system development and strengthening. Building on a strong and exciting partnership, we aim to maximize the equity, effectiveness and efficiency of CTC services in rural and urban slum areas of six countries: Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi. We will conduct a situation analysis to guide development of research frameworks. This will be adapted and applied to produce a comprehensive inventory of potential constraints for CTC services. This baseline will guide cycles of interventions for service improvement. We will build capacity on three levels: at practitioner level to enable improved service to be delivered; at researcher level to empower the next generation of researchers in health systems; at policy level to enable transfer of research experience into policy, planning and practice. The interventions will be assessed using the framework to find out what works, in which context and why and what can be improved. Our impact on equity, efficiency and effectiveness will be evaluated using a combination of outcome and process indicators and multiple methods. Analyses will include community and policy maker perspectives and elaboration of CTC providers voices in health planning. Through conducting a robust inter-country analysis we will build much needed transferable policy and practice recommendations to strengthen CTC services and empower providers, researchers and policy makers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.4.1.4-1 | Award Amount: 4.12M | Year: 2011
AGRICAB aims to strengthen Earth Observation (EO) capacities in Africa by building on the open data sharing through GEONETCast, connecting the available satellite and other data with predictive models in order to facilitate integration in agriculture and forestry planning and management processes. Dedicated national applications in various African countries are designed to address particular policy issues related to livestock, crop systems and forest management. Through these applications, twinning partnerships are developed between a European and an African partner, to maximize knowledge transfer and integration. Experiences learned will form a good basis for regional trainings to the member states of the Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (OSS) in Tunisia, the Regional Centre for Mapping Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Kenya and the AGRHYMET regional centre in Niger, covering almost the entire African continent. These activities will be linked with Africa-wide management and research initiatives and programmes on Forest and Agriculture and builds on experiences from the GEONETCast for and by Developing Countries (DevCoCast) and Global Monitoring for Food Security (GMFS) projects.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA.2010.1.1-04 | Award Amount: 2.92M | Year: 2011
In the entire world we are experiencing changing water resources needs mainly as a result of changes in land use. In developing countries the occupation of natural areas by agriculture is a major cause; economical reasons pushed by world globalization play also a major role. In both cases further global changes are expected as a result of climate change. Water availability is essential for socio-economic activities and citizens expect catchment managers to take the necessary measures for assuring quantity and quality for direct and indirect human consumption. The knowledge of the processes determining water fate, actual reserves and the capacity to forecast water consumption are essential for catchment managers decision making. Land use change drives the modification of three interdependent global variables of the watershed: evapotranspirated water, biomass production and soil organic matter content. The assessment of the consequences of land use changes requires the capacity for studying those global variables on an integrated way. Catchment models can simulate those interactions together with all the processes that determine plant dynamics and are major tools for integrated studies, essential to decision makers. The MyWater project aims at developing a water management system integrating satellite data, models and in situ data in order to improve knowledge and create the forecasting capabilities necessary to catchment managers, and at the same time optimizing the ratio cost/benefit of water resources monitoring. The specific products of the project are: 1) A webGIS data tool; 2) Tools for improving operational model exploitation; 3) Training and technological transfer. The MyWater consortium includes representatives of the type of users expected. For that reason the consortium includes European, African and Latin-American teams to work in selected case studies (Portugal, Greece, Netherlands, Mozambique and Brazil).
MOMI - Missed Opportunities in Maternal and Infant Health: reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity in the year after childbirth through combined facility- and community-based interventions
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2011
Improving maternal and newborn health requires innovative approaches that maximise opportunities for impact throughout the continuum of care. In the past decade, maternal health services have largely focused on the management of intrapartum complications and on rationalising the package of antenatal services to include emergency obstetric care provided by skilled birth attendants. These interventions have sought to target what are widely considered to be the most common and immediate causes of maternal death. Yet this approach fails to address many underlying morbidities that are instrumental in generating high rates of maternal mortality, such as anaemia and inadequate birth spacing. Also missing is a direct focus on the substantial proportion of maternal deaths in the postpartum. Indeed, as a component of maternal health, postpartum care has been neglected, along with the field of newborn health in Africa. The essential package and optimum structure of postpartum services for women and newborns in Africa remains poorly defined, with missed opportunities for improved care. We thus propose developing a package of interventions targeting newborn health and women in the early postpartum period and throughout the first year after childbirth. This package will be delivered through a combined facility- and community-based approach designed to integrate services and strengthen health systems. It will be implemented in four African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique) by a consortium of five African and three European partners. Intervention design will be preceded and informed by a situational analysis of postpartum policies and practices in the four countries and a feasibility assessment. This will ensure that interventions are amenable to scaling up and appropriately tailored to local contexts. Implementation will be followed by health systems research to evaluate effectiveness and impact, and to identify determinants of healthcare improvements.
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 275.50K | Year: 2016
In many parts of Africa, changing patterns of cross-border migration are transforming the importance of borders for marginalised populations. Recent literature cautions that simplified narratives about illegality in border zones are complicating efforts at addressing social inequities. This research examines social and political dimensions of rural livelihoods along the Zimbabwe-Mozambique border in conjunction with current debates about transboundary resource management in the region, focusing on perspectives in artisanal gold mining communities in Manica, Mozambique, where Zimbabwean artisanal miners live and work side-by-side with Mozambicans. The study explores what displacement means to different rural actors and how challenges are negotiated in pursuing resource-dependent livelihoods, with the ultimate goal of enhancing policies for addressing livelihood insecurity on both sides of the border. The Zimbabwe-Mozambique border is a high priority for research, as large numbers of Zimbabweans have crossed into Mozambique as Zimbabwes economic and political crisis deepened and are engaging in artisanal mining. Empirically, the study addresses three interlinked research questions: 1) How does mobility across the border represent new opportunities or, conversely, new challenges, for reconfigured livelihoods in artisanal mining communities near/along the border?; 2) To what extent are global and national institutions taking these challenges and opportunities into consideration in their approach to transboundary resource management policies?; 3) How are formal artisanal miners associations and informal groups of artisanal miners (on both sides of the border) socially engaged in processes of contesting land near/at the border? Through in-depth life history interviews, focus groups, field diaries, visual methods and participant observation with artisanal mining associations, the study will explore how women and men in mining communities negotiate livelihood struggles, analysing social and economic ties that transcend the border. Analysing perspectives on mining, displacement and migration in relation to transboundary resource governance, policy documents will be reviewed and interviews conducted with national and district government authorities, companies and civil society organizations. This study will generate original data and contribute new insights to engage conceptual and policy debates as well as associated methodological and ethical debates in borderlands research. The analysis aims to inform researchers in geography, development studies, African studies and the growing field of borderlands research, as well as policymakers. In 2011, the African Union signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the African Borderlands Research Network, based at the University of Edinburgh, highlighting the need for research to support policymaking that enhances livelihoods in border regions. This project is especially timely in light of a global environmental treaty signed by more than 120 countries recently, including Zimbabwe and Mozambique, requiring governments to take new steps to manage artisanal gold mining. Government officials have expressed the need for research to inform National Action Plans for implementing the treaty in the 2015-2020 period. The projects regional workshops will co-produce knowledge while building local capacity of artisanal mining associations, government agencies, civil society and universities in Zimbabwe, Mozambique and the UK. Theoretical, ethical and methodological insights will be disseminated through books, articles, briefs, lectures and courses, to inform crosscutting debates at the intersection of borderlands research and extractive sector research. Building on past experiences working with United Nations agencies, this project will be transformative in cultivating new skills to lead North-South-South collaborative research that informs policymakers at regional, national and global levels.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: WATER-5c-2015 | Award Amount: 5.42M | Year: 2016
Global trends in population growth and rising economic prosperity will increase the demand for energy, food and water, with more severe impact in fast-growing economies, such as in several African countries. The constraints on water, energy, and food could well hamper economic development, lead to social and geopolitical tensions, and cause lasting environmental damage. DAFNE advocates an integrated and adaptive water resources planning and management approach that explicitly addresses the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus from a novel participatory and multidisciplinary perspective. This includes social, economic, and ecologic dimensions, involves both public and private actors and is socially inclusive, enhances resource efficiency and prevents the loss of ecosystem services in regions where large infrastructures exist or are being built and intensive agriculture is expanding. A decision-analytic-framework (DAF) will be developed to quantitatively assess the social, economic, and environmental impact of expanding energy and food production in complex physical and political contexts, where natural and social processes are strongly interconnected and the institutional setting involves multiple stakeholders and decision-makers. The DAFNE approach will be demonstrated by analysing two cross-boundary case studies, the Zambezi and the Omo river basins. The WEF nexus will be quantified and analysed as the trade-off between conflicting objectives such as hydropower production vs irrigation, land exploitation vs conservation, etc. The nexus will be translated in economic values and impact on growth, ecosystems and ecosystem services. DAFNE will allow a better understanding of the WEF nexus, and generate and explore alternative planning and management solutions based on the cooperation of public and private stakeholders, which foster the profitable but equitable use of resources without transgressing environmental limits or creating societal and/or stakeholder conflicts.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.1.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 4.40M | Year: 2011
The principal aim of the DEWFORA proposal is to develop a framework for the provision of early warning and response to mitigate the impact of droughts in Africa. The proposal has been built to achive three key targets: 1. Improved monitoring: by improving knowledge on drought forecasting, warning and mitigation, and advancing the understanding of climate related vulnerability to drought both in the current and in the projected future climate. 2. Prototype operational forecasting: by bringing advances made in the project to the pre-operational stage through development of prototype systems and piloting methods in operational drought monitoring and forecasting agencies. 3. Knowledge dissemination: through a stakeholders platform that includes national and regional drought monitoring and forecasting agencies, as well as NGOs and IGOs, and through capacity building programmes to help embed the knowledge gained in the community of African practitioners and researchers. To achieve these targets, the DEWFORA consortium brings together leading research institutes and universities; institutes that excel in application of state-of-the-art science in the operational domain; operational agencies responsible for meteorological forecasting, drought monitoring and famine warning; and established knowledge networks in Africa. The consortium provides an excellent regional balance, and the skilled coordinator and several partners have worked together in (European) research projects, implementation projects and capacity building programmes, thus building efficiently on previous and ongoing projects in Europe and Africa. The main impact of DEWFORA will be to increase the effectiveness of drought forecasting, warning and response. DEWFORA will provide guidance on how and where drought preparedness and adaptation should be targeted to contribute to increased resilience and improved effectiveness of drought mitigation measures.
Ntsekhe M.,University of Cape Town |
Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University
Heart | Year: 2013
The early part of the new millennium witnessed reports of a growing burden of cardiovascular disease in Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA). However the contribution of ischemic heart disease and stroke to this increasing burden relative to that caused by hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy and rheumatic heart disease was not clear. Over the last decade, data from the continent has begun to clarify this issue and suggests three main points. The burden of ischemic heart disease relative to other causes of heart disease remains low particularly in the black Africans majority. Stroke caused predominantly by hypertension is now a major cause of disability and premature death. Third, the burden of risk factors for atherosclerosis is increasing rapidly in most urban and some rural regions. A concerted effort to understand the primary drivers of this increase in cardiac risk factors is required to prevent a future epidemic of atherosclerosis and its sequelae.
Ibrahim M.M.,Cairo University |
Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University
The Lancet | Year: 2012
Data from different national and regional surveys show that hypertension is common in developing countries, particularly in urban areas, and that rates of awareness, treatment, and control are low. Several hypertension risk factors seem to be more common in developing countries than in developed regions. Findings from serial surveys show an increasing prevalence of hypertension in developing countries, possibly caused by urbanisation, ageing of population, changes to dietary habits, and social stress. High illiteracy rates, poor access to health facilities, bad dietary habits, poverty, and high costs of drugs contribute to poor blood pressure control. The health system in many developing countries is inadequate because of low funds, poor infrastructure, and inexperience. Priority is given to acute disorders, child and maternal health care, and control of communicable diseases. Governments, together with medical societies and non-governmental organisations, should support and promote preventive programmes aiming to increase public awareness, educate physicians, and reduce salt intake. Regulations for the food industry and the production and availability of generic drugs should be reinforced.