So M.,King's College London |
So M.,Weston Education Center |
Yamaguchi S.,National Institute of Mental Health |
Hashimoto S.,Edogawa University |
And 3 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Background: Depression is a major cause of disability worldwide, and computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT) is expected to be a more augmentative and efficient treatment. According to previous meta-analyses of CCBT, there is a need for a meta-analytic revaluation of the short-term effectiveness of this therapy and for an evaluation of its long-term effects, functional improvement and dropout.Methods: Five databases were used (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CiNii). We included all RCTs with proper concealment and blinding of outcome assessment for the clinical effectiveness of CCBT in adults (aged 18 and over) with depression. Using Cohen's method, the standard mean difference (SMD) for the overall pooled effects across the included studies was estimated with a random effect model. The main outcome measure and the relative risk of dropout were included in the meta-analysis.Results: Fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria, and sixteen comparisons from these were used for the largest meta-analysis ever. All research used appropriate random sequence generation and Intention-to-Treat analyses (ITT), and employed self-reported measures as the primary outcome. For the sixteen comparisons (2807 participants) comparing CCBT and control conditions, the pooled SMD was -0.48 [95% IC -0.63 to -0.33], suggesting similar effect to the past reviews. Also, there was no significant clinical effect at long follow-up and no improvement of function found. Furthermore, a significantly higher drop-out rate was found for CCBT than for controls. When including studies without BDI as a rating scale and with only modern imputation as sensitivity analysis, the pooled SMD remained significant despite the reduction from a moderate to a small effect. Significant publication bias was found in a funnel plot and on two tests (Begg's p = 0.09; Egger's p = 0.01). Using a trim and fill analysis, the SMD was -0.32 [95% CI -0.49 to -0.16].Conclusion: Despite a short-term reduction in depression at post-treatment, the effect at long follow-up and the function improvement were not significant, with significantly high drop-out. Considering the risk of bias, our meta-analysis implied that the clinical usefulness of current CCBT for adult depression may need to be re-considered downwards in terms of practical implementation and methodological validity. © 2013 So et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Nakamura Y.,University of Tokyo |
Fukunari M.,University of Fukui |
Yamaguchi T.,Edogawa University |
Komurasaki K.,University of Tokyo |
Koizumi H.,University of Tokyo
47th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference | Year: 2016
Beamed energy propulsion application has received keen research attention as a low cost launch system. In one of the ideas proposed over the years for such a system, millimeter-wave discharge plays a major role in converting beamed energy into kinetic energy through plasma-beam interaction and ejection of pressurized air. In previous discharge experiments, a characteristic formation of plasma front was observed during its propagation. Propagation of this front is referred as comb shaped plasma front propagation. This formation can affect energy-conversion efficiency. In this research, plasmoid formation was reproduced by computation, and pitch-size dependency on initial plasma-distribution, frequency and other parameters was investigated. From some numerical analysis, the causes of this formation are also discussed. © 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All rights reserved.
Suzuki I.,Kyushu University |
Igarashi Y.,Meteorological Research Institute |
Dokiya Y.,Edogawa University |
Akagi T.,Kyushu University
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010
Besides well-known episodic Kosa during spring, high concentrations of Ca2+ in aerosols were observed early in summer as well as in the semi-continuous data of the aerosols at the summit of Mt. Fuji. We further analysed the data to study the chemical characteristics of the high calcium event during early summer. The back trajectory analyses of the event indicated that Ca was transported from arid and semi-arid regions (e.g. the Taklamakan desert) through the westerly-dominated troposphere higher than the height of the summit of Fuji. The amount of SO4 2- was always equivalent to that of NH4 + unlike the case of the normal Kosa period where SO4 2- is in excess with respect to NH4 +. This shows the 'after' mixing of unreacted CaCO3 of Kosa origin with (NH4)2SO4, which was only realized by the downward injection of Kosa particles from higher altitudes to the air masses of different origin. In the case of normal Kosa, the air bearing Kosa particles passed through the polluted area to absorb unneutralized acids ('on-the-way' mixing), whereas in the case of the Kosa-like phenomena in summer, the acids from the polluted area have been neutralized by NH4 + and become inactive before mixing with CaCO3 ("after" mixing). We have simplified the chemistry of aerosols using their three major components, Ca2+, SO4 2- and NH4 +, and introduced a new triangle diagram with the three assumed end-members of CaCO3, CaSO4 and (NH4)2SO4 to quantify the contribution of the 'after' mixing to the aerosols (AMI; 'after' mixing index). Based on the back trajectories of some high AMI cases, CaCO3 in Kosa particles was transported through the middle troposphere (5000-7000 m) and descended to meet another air mass where SO4 2- had been already neutralized by NH3. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asaoka S.,Tokyo Medical University |
Asaoka S.,Neuropsychiatric Research Institute |
Fukuda K.,Edogawa University |
Murphy T.I.,Brock University |
And 4 more authors.
Sleep | Year: 2012
Study Objectives: To examine the effects of a 1-hr nighttime nap, and the associated sleep inertia, on the error-monitoring functions during extended wakefulness using the 2 event-related potential components thought to reflect error detection and emotional or motivational evaluation of the error, i.e., the error-related negativity/error-negativity (ERN/Ne) and error-positivity (Pe), respectively. Design: Participants awakened at 07:00 the morning of the experimental day, and performed a stimulus-response compatibility (arrow-orientation) task at 21:00, 02:00, and 03:00. Setting: A cognitive task with EEG data recording was performed in a laboratory setting. Participants: Twenty young adults (mean age 21.3 ± 1.0 yr, 14 males) participated. Interventions: Half of the participants took a 1-hr nap, and the others had a 1-hr awake-rest period from 01:00-02:00. Measurements and Results: Behavioral performance and amplitude of the Pe declined after midnight (i.e., 02:00 and 03:00) compared with the 21:00 task period in both groups. During the task period starting at 03:00, the participants in the awake-rest condition reported less alertness and showed fewer correct responses than those who napped. However, there were no effects of a nap on the amplitude of the ERN/Ne or Pe. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a 1-hr nap can alleviate the decline in subjective alertness and response accuracy during nighttime; however, error-monitoring functions, especially emotional or motivational evaluation of the error, might remain impaired by extended wakefulness even after the nap. This phenomenon could imply that night-shift workers experiencing extended wakefulness should not overestimate the positive effects of a nighttime 1-hr nap during extended wakefulness.
Morita Y.,Tokyo Medical University |
Sasai-Sakuma T.,Tokyo Medical University |
Sasai-Sakuma T.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University |
Asaoka S.,Edogawa University |
And 2 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2015
Sleep-related problems, such as symptoms of insomnia, daytime sleepiness, shorter sleep duration, or a delayed sleep-wake schedule, are known to be risk factors for depression. In general, depression is more prevalent in women than in men, but sleep-related problems do not necessarily show similar gender predominance. Hence, it can be speculated that the impact of sleep-related problems on the development process of depression differs between genders; however, so far, few studies have focused on this issue. The aim of this study was to clarify gender differences in the rates of depression of people with the above sleep-related problems, and to examine gender differences in factors associated with depression in Japanese young adults. A web-based questionnaire survey comprising assessments of demographic variables, sleep-related variables (bed time, wake time, sleep onset latency, frequency of difficulty in initiating sleep and that in maintaining sleep, i.e. symptom components of insomnia, and daytime sleepiness), and the 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was administered to 2502 participants (males:females = 1144:1358, age range = 19-25 years). Female predominance in the rate of depression was observed only in subjects with a delayed sleep-wake schedule (χ2(1) = 15.44, p < 0.001). In men, daytime sleepiness and difficulty in initiating sleep were significantly associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.69, 3.39], p < 0.001; OR = 3.50, 95% CI = [2.29, 5.35], p < 0.001, respectively), whereas in women, significant associations were found between depression and a delayed sleep-wake schedule (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = [1.28, 2.39], p < 0.001), daytime sleepiness (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = [1.60, 2.85], p < 0.001), and difficulty in initiating sleep (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = [3.17, 6.03], p < 0.001). These results indicate that in younger generations, the impact of a delayed sleep-wake schedule on the development of depression is greater in women; specifically, women are vulnerable to depression when they have an eveningness-type lifestyle, which is possibly attributable to the female-specific intrinsic earlier and shorter circadian rhythm. These results suggest the necessity of gender-based approaches to treating sleep-related problems for alleviating or preventing depressive symptoms in young adults. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Ogawa T.,Chiba Institute of Science |
Matsuda I.,Chiba Institute of Science |
Hirota A.,Kamakura Women's University |
Takasawa N.,Edogawa University
International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology | Year: 2014
Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhan P.,Edogawa University
Progress in Informatics | Year: 2012
Lot-sizing problem has been extensively researched in many aspects. In this manuscript, we give a dynamic programming algorithm scheme for lot-sizing problems with outsourcing. © 2012 National Institute of Informatics.
PubMed | Edogawa University and Tokyo Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine | Year: 2015
This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS), and factors associated with daytime dysfunction in the disorder in Japanese young adults.In this cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire survey was used to assess demographic variables, sleep habits and quality, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2,276 participants aged 20-25.Eleven percent of participants were classified as having ISS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ISS was significantly associated with social status (student or full-time employee). The participants with ISS had significantly higher depression scores and lower mental component summary scores than healthy sleepers. In the participants with ISS, a delayed sleep-wake schedule was extracted as a factor associated with worse mental component summary.Results indicate a relatively high proportion of Japanese young adults suffer from ISS, and that the condition is associated with a social status of student or full-time employee. Moreover, a delayed sleep-wake schedule may lead to further deterioration of mental HRQOL in ISS-affected persons.
Asaoka S.,Edogawa University |
Komada Y.,Tokyo Medical University |
Komada Y.,Neuropsychiatric Research Institute |
Aritake S.,Waseda University |
And 5 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2014
Objective: To examine the effects of changes in sleep phase on the daytime functioning of new university graduates. Methods: Questionnaire data of university students (n = 745) and university graduates working full time (n = 360) were analyzed to explore sleep phase changes during this life stage. The newly graduated full-time workers (n = 117) were divided into 2 (bedtime at investigation: earlier/later) × 2 groups (bedtime at one year prior to investigation: earlier/later), and depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life were compared among groups. Results: New university graduates experienced ~1 h of sleep phase advancement and shortened time in bed compared to one year before investigation. In addition, those who experienced such sleep changes showed larger daytime dysfunction. Conclusion: Prevention of extreme sleep phase delay during university days might be helpful for students' adaptation to work environment after graduation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Kamakura Women's University, Edogawa University and Chiba Institute of Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology | Year: 2014
Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.