Asaoka S.,Tokyo Medical University |
Asaoka S.,Neuropsychiatric Research Institute |
Fukuda K.,Edogawa University |
Murphy T.I.,Brock University |
And 4 more authors.
Sleep | Year: 2012
Study Objectives: To examine the effects of a 1-hr nighttime nap, and the associated sleep inertia, on the error-monitoring functions during extended wakefulness using the 2 event-related potential components thought to reflect error detection and emotional or motivational evaluation of the error, i.e., the error-related negativity/error-negativity (ERN/Ne) and error-positivity (Pe), respectively. Design: Participants awakened at 07:00 the morning of the experimental day, and performed a stimulus-response compatibility (arrow-orientation) task at 21:00, 02:00, and 03:00. Setting: A cognitive task with EEG data recording was performed in a laboratory setting. Participants: Twenty young adults (mean age 21.3 ± 1.0 yr, 14 males) participated. Interventions: Half of the participants took a 1-hr nap, and the others had a 1-hr awake-rest period from 01:00-02:00. Measurements and Results: Behavioral performance and amplitude of the Pe declined after midnight (i.e., 02:00 and 03:00) compared with the 21:00 task period in both groups. During the task period starting at 03:00, the participants in the awake-rest condition reported less alertness and showed fewer correct responses than those who napped. However, there were no effects of a nap on the amplitude of the ERN/Ne or Pe. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a 1-hr nap can alleviate the decline in subjective alertness and response accuracy during nighttime; however, error-monitoring functions, especially emotional or motivational evaluation of the error, might remain impaired by extended wakefulness even after the nap. This phenomenon could imply that night-shift workers experiencing extended wakefulness should not overestimate the positive effects of a nighttime 1-hr nap during extended wakefulness.
Suzuki I.,Kyushu University |
Igarashi Y.,Meteorological Research Institute |
Dokiya Y.,Edogawa University |
Akagi T.,Kyushu University
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010
Besides well-known episodic Kosa during spring, high concentrations of Ca2+ in aerosols were observed early in summer as well as in the semi-continuous data of the aerosols at the summit of Mt. Fuji. We further analysed the data to study the chemical characteristics of the high calcium event during early summer. The back trajectory analyses of the event indicated that Ca was transported from arid and semi-arid regions (e.g. the Taklamakan desert) through the westerly-dominated troposphere higher than the height of the summit of Fuji. The amount of SO4 2- was always equivalent to that of NH4 + unlike the case of the normal Kosa period where SO4 2- is in excess with respect to NH4 +. This shows the 'after' mixing of unreacted CaCO3 of Kosa origin with (NH4)2SO4, which was only realized by the downward injection of Kosa particles from higher altitudes to the air masses of different origin. In the case of normal Kosa, the air bearing Kosa particles passed through the polluted area to absorb unneutralized acids ('on-the-way' mixing), whereas in the case of the Kosa-like phenomena in summer, the acids from the polluted area have been neutralized by NH4 + and become inactive before mixing with CaCO3 ("after" mixing). We have simplified the chemistry of aerosols using their three major components, Ca2+, SO4 2- and NH4 +, and introduced a new triangle diagram with the three assumed end-members of CaCO3, CaSO4 and (NH4)2SO4 to quantify the contribution of the 'after' mixing to the aerosols (AMI; 'after' mixing index). Based on the back trajectories of some high AMI cases, CaCO3 in Kosa particles was transported through the middle troposphere (5000-7000 m) and descended to meet another air mass where SO4 2- had been already neutralized by NH3. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Futenma K.,Tokyo Medical University |
Asaoka S.,Tokyo Medical University |
Asaoka S.,Edogawa University |
Takaesu Y.,Tokyo Medical University |
And 8 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2015
Objective: We investigated quality of life (QOL) and work performance of hypnotics users, and explored the factors associated with multiple hypnotics usage in shift work nurses. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey on nurses in university hospitals. We analyzed responses from 1202 nurses; 997 were female shift work nurses (82.9%), including 696 and 281 two- and three-shift workers, respectively. Results: The rate of hypnotics use was 10% (6.9% were single hypnotic users and 3.1% were multiple hypnotics users). The rate of insomnia did not differ between the single and multiple hypnotics users. However, multiple hypnotics users showed lower QOL, more severe depressive symptoms, and greater frequencies of work-related errors than those using a single hypnotic. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥27 years, presence of depression, eveningness chronotype, and presence of insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with hypnotics use. On the other hand, only the existence of shift work disorder (SWD) was significantly associated with usage of multiple hypnotics. Conclusions: The present study suggested that usage of multiple hypnotics is not beneficial for relieving insomnia or for keeping better QOL in shift work nurses. It would be desirable to explore the causal relationship between SWD and multiple hypnotics use in a future longitudinal study. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
So M.,Kings College London |
So M.,Weston Education Center |
Yamaguchi S.,National Institute of Mental Health |
Hashimoto S.,Edogawa University |
And 3 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Background: Depression is a major cause of disability worldwide, and computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT) is expected to be a more augmentative and efficient treatment. According to previous meta-analyses of CCBT, there is a need for a meta-analytic revaluation of the short-term effectiveness of this therapy and for an evaluation of its long-term effects, functional improvement and dropout.Methods: Five databases were used (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CiNii). We included all RCTs with proper concealment and blinding of outcome assessment for the clinical effectiveness of CCBT in adults (aged 18 and over) with depression. Using Cohen's method, the standard mean difference (SMD) for the overall pooled effects across the included studies was estimated with a random effect model. The main outcome measure and the relative risk of dropout were included in the meta-analysis.Results: Fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria, and sixteen comparisons from these were used for the largest meta-analysis ever. All research used appropriate random sequence generation and Intention-to-Treat analyses (ITT), and employed self-reported measures as the primary outcome. For the sixteen comparisons (2807 participants) comparing CCBT and control conditions, the pooled SMD was -0.48 [95% IC -0.63 to -0.33], suggesting similar effect to the past reviews. Also, there was no significant clinical effect at long follow-up and no improvement of function found. Furthermore, a significantly higher drop-out rate was found for CCBT than for controls. When including studies without BDI as a rating scale and with only modern imputation as sensitivity analysis, the pooled SMD remained significant despite the reduction from a moderate to a small effect. Significant publication bias was found in a funnel plot and on two tests (Begg's p = 0.09; Egger's p = 0.01). Using a trim and fill analysis, the SMD was -0.32 [95% CI -0.49 to -0.16].Conclusion: Despite a short-term reduction in depression at post-treatment, the effect at long follow-up and the function improvement were not significant, with significantly high drop-out. Considering the risk of bias, our meta-analysis implied that the clinical usefulness of current CCBT for adult depression may need to be re-considered downwards in terms of practical implementation and methodological validity. © 2013 So et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Zhan P.,Edogawa University
Progress in Informatics | Year: 2012
Lot-sizing problem has been extensively researched in many aspects. In this manuscript, we give a dynamic programming algorithm scheme for lot-sizing problems with outsourcing. © 2012 National Institute of Informatics.