IASMA Edmund Machinery Foundation

San Michele Mondovì, Italy

IASMA Edmund Machinery Foundation

San Michele Mondovì, Italy
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Camin F.,IASMA Edmund Machinery Foundation | Perini M.,IASMA Edmund Machinery Foundation | Bontempo L.,IASMA Edmund Machinery Foundation | Fabroni S.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 9 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Several isotopic (13C/12C, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, 2H/1H, 34S/32S) and chemical-physical parameters (pH, fruit weight, juice yield, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, skin resistance, flesh firmness, colorimetric characteristics, weight loss after harvesting, antioxidant activity, earliness index, total nitrogen, ascorbic acid, synephrine, anthocyanins and polyphenols, citric acid, malic acid, sucrose, glucose and fructose content) were investigated as potential markers of organically cultivated oranges, clementines, strawberries and peaches produced in Italy between 2006 and 2008, in experimental fields and in certified farms. The ratio 15N/14N, ascorbic acid and total soluble solids were shown to be the most significant variables for distinguishing between organically and conventionally cultivated fruits. It was not possible to define general threshold limits typical of organic fruits because these parameters are influenced also by fruit specie, cultivar, year and site of production. Combining isotopic and chemical markers a good discrimination between organic and conventional fruits of different species was achieved. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Harrison S.M.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Schmidt O.,Agriculture and Food Science Center | Moloney A.P.,Teagasc | Kelly S.D.,UK Environment Agency | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Multiple stable isotope ratios (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O and δ34S) were measured in muscle, muscle lipids and lipid fractions collected from 28 lambs, subjected to a diet-switch and raised on two energy allowances (EAs), to determine tissue turnover and diet-tissue fractionation. The diet-muscle fractionations prior to the diet-switch were estimated to be -44.0‰, +1.9‰ and 0‰ for H, C and S, respectively, while the drinking water was demonstrated to be the main source of muscle O and thus δ18O variation. The diet-intra-muscular lipid fractionations prior to the diet-switch were estimated to be -172.7‰, -1.3‰ and -11.5‰ for H, C and O, respectively. The C half-lives of muscle were determined to be 75.7 and 91.6days for animals receiving the high and low EA, respectively. Extracting temporally resolved pre-slaughter dietary information from meat by analysing bulk muscle, muscle lipids and muscle lipid fractions appeared to be not practicable due to possible incomplete turnover of lipids. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Concheri G.,University of Padua | Bertoldi D.,IASMA Edmund Machinery Foundation | Polone E.,University of Padua | Otto S.,CNR Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The scientific contribution to the solution of crime cases, or throughout the consequent forensic trials, is a crucial aspect of the justice system. The possibility to extract meaningful information from trace amounts of samples, and to match and validate evidences with robust and unambiguous statistical tests, are the key points of such process. The present report is the authorized disclosure of an investigation, carried out by Attorney General appointment, on a murder case in northern Italy, which yielded the critical supporting evidence for the judicial trial. Methodology/Principal Findings: The proportional distribution of 54 chemical elements and the bacterial community DNA fingerprints were used as signature markers to prove the similarity of two soil samples. The first soil was collected on the crime scene, along a corn field, while the second was found in trace amounts on the carpet of a car impounded from the main suspect in a distant location. The matching similarity of the two soils was proven by crossing the results of two independent techniques: a) elemental analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) approaches, and b) amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis by gel electrophoresis (ARDRA). Conclusions: Besides introducing the novel application of these methods to forensic disciplines, the highly accurate level of resolution observed, opens new possibilities also in the fields of soil typing and tracking, historical analyses, geochemical surveys and global land mapping. © 2011 Concheri et al.

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