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Koskenniemi J.J.,University of Turku | Virtanen H.E.,University of Turku | Kiviranta H.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Damgaard I.N.,EDMaRC | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source

Background: Congenital cryptorchidism, i.e. failure of the testicular descent to the bottom of the scrotum, is a common birth defect. The evidence from epidemiological, wildlife, and animal studies suggests that exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal development may play a role in its pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the association between cryptorchidism and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods: We conducted a case-control study consisting of 44 cryptorchid cases, and 38 controls operated for inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, or hydrocele at the Turku University Hospital or Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen in 2002-2006. During the operation a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was taken. Samples were analysed for 37 PCBs, 17 PCDD/Fs and 14 PBDEs by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Chemical concentrations were adjusted for postnatal variation introduced by differences in duration of breastfeeding, age at the operation, and country of origin with a multiple linear regression. Association between adjusted and unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism were analysed with logistic regression to get an estimate for odds ratio (OR) of cryptorchidism per multiplication of chemical concentrations with ca. 2.71 (Napier's constant). Results: Total-TEq i.e. the WHO-recommended 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent quantity of 17 dioxins and 12 dioxin-like PCBs and sum of PCDD/Fs were positively associated with cryptorchidism [OR 3.21 (95 % CI 1.29-9.09), OR 3.69 (95 % CI 1.45-10.9), respectively], when adjusting for country of origin, the duration the child was breastfed, and age at operation. The association between the sum of PCBs and cryptorchidism was close to significant [OR 1.92 (95 % CI 0.98-4.01)], whereas the association between the sum of PBDEs and cryptorchidism was not [OR 0.86 (95 % CI 0.47-1.54)]. There were no associations between unadjusted chemical concentrations and the risk of cryptorchidism. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCDD/F-like PCBs may be associated with increased risk for cryptorchidism. Our finding does not exclude the possibility of an association between the exposure to PBDEs and cryptorchidism. © 2015 Koskenniemi et al. Source

Mouritsen A.,EDMaRC | Mouritsen A.,Copenhagen University | Soeborg T.,EDMaRC | Soeborg T.,Copenhagen University | And 12 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta

Adrenarche is characterized by steadily rising levels of adrenal androgen metabolites from 4-6 years of age.We recently described marked gender-specific differences in circulating ratios between selected adrenal androgen metabolites in a cross-sectional study. This may suggest gender differences in steroidogenic enzyme activities. We therefore aimed at verifying these findings in a prospective, longitudinal study of healthy boys and girls who were examined during pubertal transition. A longitudinal study of 20 healthy children from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study, followed every 6 months for 5 years. Clinical examinations were conducted and serum concentrations of Androstenedione (Adione), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) were quantified by a newly developed LC-MS/MS method. DHEA, DHEAS, Adione, 17-OHP and T increase with age. Boys had higher levels of DHEAS from 10.5 years of age, whereas girls had higher levels of Adione from 13 years of age compared to boys. Interestingly, we observed significantly higher ratios of DHEAS/DHEA (sulfotransferase activity) in boys before and after pubertal onset compared to girls, whereas Adione/17-OHP (CYP 17 activity) appeared to increase more in pubertal girls compared to boys. This suggests that adrenal steroidogenic enzyme activities show developmental as well as gender-specific changes in healthy children © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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