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Comisford R.,Edison Biotechnology Institute | Lubbers E.R.,Edison Biotechnology Institute | Householder L.A.,Edison Biotechnology Institute | Suer O.,Edison Biotechnology Institute | And 8 more authors.
Gerontology | Year: 2016

Background: Growth hormone (GH)-resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests that long-lived GH-resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine WAT senescence, WAT distribution and glucose homeostasis in dwarf GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. Methods: 18-month-old female GHA mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose as well as glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining to quantify the senescent cell burden, and real-time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. Results: GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, a 33% reduction in lean mass and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p < 0.05) and a 1.7-fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p < 0.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. Conclusions: Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin sensitivity, but no change in cellular senescence. The similar abundance of WAT senescent cells in GHA and control mice suggests that any protection against generation of senescent cells afforded by decreased GH action, low insulin-like growth factor 1 and/or improved insulin sensitivity in the GHA mice may be offset by their severe adiposity, since obesity is known to increase senescence. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Chen X.,Ohio University | Qian Y.,Ohio University | Wu S.,Ohio University | Wu S.,Edison Biotechnology Institute
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Metabolic reprogramming and altered bioenergetics have emerged as hallmarks of cancer and an area of active basic and translational cancer research. Drastically upregulated glucose transport and metabolism in most cancers regardless of the oxygen supply, a phenomenon called the Warburg effect, is a major focuses of the research. Warburg speculated that cancer cells, due to defective mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), switch to glycolysis for ATP synthesis, even in the presence of oxygen. Studies in the recent decade indicated that while glycolysis is indeed drastically upregulated in almost all cancer cells, mitochondrial respiration continues to operate normally at rates proportional to oxygen supply. There is no OXPHOS-to-glycolysis switch but rather upregulation of glycolysis. Furthermore, upregulated glycolysis appears to be for synthesis of biomass and reducing equivalents in addition to ATP production. The new finding that a significant amount of glycolytic intermediates is diverted to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) for production of NADPH has profound implications in how cancer cells use the Warburg effect to cope with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress, opening the door for anticancer interventions taking advantage of this. Recent findings in the Warburg effect and its relationship with ROS and oxidative stress controls will be reviewed. Cancer treatment strategies based on these new findings will be presented and discussed. Source


Tong L.,Edison Biotechnology Institute | Wu S.,Edison Biotechnology Institute
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Background: Early activation of NF-κB upon UVB irradiation is through a noncanonical eIF2-dependent IκB reduction pathway.Results: Inhibition of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase inhibited UVB-induced NF-κB activation.Conclusion: Constitutive nitric-oxide synthase is required for NF-κB activation.Significance: Learning the regulation of NF-κB upon UVB irradiation is critical for understanding the initiation and development of UVB-induced tumorigenesis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Benencia F.,Heritage University | Benencia F.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Harshman S.,Edison Biotechnology Institute | Harshman S.,Ohio University | And 17 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2015

White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, includingimmunecells that varyamongthe differentWATdepots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects onWATimmune cell populations remain unstudied. BovineGHtransgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences inimmunecell populations in the presence of excessGHin vivo. ThreeWATdepotswere assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNAsequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner. Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Source


Suzuki K.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Suzuki K.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | Suzuki K.,MedStar Research Institute | Wu H.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 9 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Although it is well known that an excess of iodide suppresses thyroid function and blood flow in vivo, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully known. The functional effect of iodide occurs at multiple steps, which include inhibition of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression, transient block of organification, and inhibition of hormonal release. The vascular effect likely involves suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. In this report, we show that excess iodide coordinately suppresses the expression of the NIS and VEGF genes in FRTL-5 thyroid cells. We also demonstrate that the mechanism of iodide suppression of NIS gene expression is transcriptional, which is synergized by the addition of thyroglobulin. Based on the findings of reporter gene assays and electrophoretic gel mobility shift analysis, we also report two novel DNA binding proteins that responded specifically to iodide and modulated NIS promoter activity. The results suggest that excess iodide affects thyroid vascular function in addition to iodide uptake. This study provides additional insights into the mechanism of action of excess iodide on thyroid function. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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