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Livingston, United Kingdom

Paterson M.J.,University of Dundee | Dunsmore C.J.,Elvingston Science Center | Hurteaux R.,Edinburgh Instruments | Maltman B.A.,Elvingston Science Center | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Biochemistry

We describe the development of a novel method for the assay of serine/threonine protein kinases based on fluorescence lifetime. The assay consists of three generic peptides (which have been used by others in the assay of >140 protein kinases in various assay formats) labeled with a long lifetime fluorescent dye (14 or 17. ns) that act as substrates for protein kinases and an iron(III) chelate that modulates the fluorescence lifetime of the peptide only when it is phosphorylated. The decrease in average fluorescence lifetime as measured in a recently developed fluorescence lifetime plate reader (Edinburgh Instruments) is a measure of the degree of phosphorylation of the peptide. We present data showing that the assay performs as well as, and in some cases better than, the " gold standard" radiometric kinase assays with respect to Z' values, demonstrating its utility in high-throughput screening applications. We also show that the assay gives nearly identical results in trial screening to those obtained by radiometric assays and that it is less prone to interference than simple fluorescence intensity measurements. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gakamsky D.M.,Royal Society Industry Fellow | Dhillon B.,NHS Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion | Dhillon B.,Heriot - Watt University | Babraj J.,University of Abertay Dundee | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface

A novel route for early cataract diagnostics is investigated based on the excitation of tryptophan fluorescence (TF) at the red edge of its absorption band at 317 nm. This allows penetration through the cornea and aqueous humour to provide excitation of the ocular lens. The steepness of the red edge gives the potential of depth control of the lens excitation. Such wavelength selection targets the population of tryptophan residues, side chains of which are exposed to the polar aqueous environment. The TF emissions around 350 nm of a series of UV-irradiated as well as control lenses were observed. TF spectra of the UV cases were red-shifted and the intensity decreased with the radiation dose. In contrast, intensity of non-tryptophan emission with maximum at 435 nm exhibited an increase suggesting photochemical conversion of the tryptophan population to 435 nm emitting molecules. We demonstrate that the ratio of intensities at 435 nm to that around 350 nm can be used as a measure of early structural changes caused by UV irradiation in the lens by comparison with images from a conventional slit-lamp, which can only detect defects of optical wavelength size. Such diagnostics at a molecular level could aid research on cataract risk investigation and possible pharmacological research as well as assisting surgical lens replacement decisions. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source

Gakamsky D.M.,Edinburgh Instruments | Dennis R.B.,Edinburgh Instruments | Smith S.D.,Edinburgh Instruments
Analytical Biochemistry

This article describes novel data analysis of fluorescence lifetime-based protein kinase assays to identify and correct for compound interference in several practical cases. This ability, together with inherent advantages of fluorescence lifetime technology (FLT) as a homogeneous, antibody-free format independent of sample concentration, volume, excitation intensity, and geometry, makes fluorescence lifetime a practical alternative to the established "gold standards" of radiometric and mobility shift (Caliper) assays. The analysis is based on a photochemical model that sets constraints on the values of fluorescence lifetimes in the time responses of the assay. The addition of an exponential component with free floating lifetime to the constrained model, in which the lifetimes are constants predetermined from control measurements and the preexponential coefficients are "floating" parameters, allows the relative concentration of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated substrates to be calculated even in the presence of compound fluorescence. The method is exemplified using both simulated data and experimental results measured from mixtures of dye-labeled phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated kinase substrates. A change of the fluorescence lifetime is achieved by the phosphorylated substrate-specific interaction with a bifunctional ligand, where one binding site interacts with the phosphate group and the other interacts with the dye. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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