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Anderson R.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Rosendahl M.,Copenhagen University | Kelsey T.W.,University of St. Andrews | Cameron D.A.,Edinburgh Breast Unit | Cameron D.A.,University of Edinburgh
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Aim Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea. Methods Women (n = 59, mean age 42.6 years [(range 23.3-52.5]) with eBC were recruited before any treatment. Pretreatment ovarian reserve markers (anti-Müllerian hormone [AMH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], inhibin B) were analysed in relation to ovarian status at 2 years. Results Pretreatment AMH was significantly lower in women with amenorrhoea at 2 years (4.0 ± 0.9 pmol/L versus 17.2 ± 2.5, P < 0.0001), but FSH and inhibin B did not differ between groups. By logistic regression, pretreatment AMH, but not age, FSH or inhibin B, was an independent predictor of ovarian status at 2 years (P = 0.005; odds ratio 0.013). We combined these data with a similar cohort (combined n = 75); receiver-operator characteristic analysis for AMH gave area under curve (AUC) of 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.97)). A cross-validated classification tree analysis resulted in a binary classification schema with sensitivity 98.2% and specificity 80.0% for correct classification of amenorrhoea. Conclusion Pretreatment AMH is a useful predictor of long term post chemotherapy loss of ovarian function in women with eBC, adding significantly to the only previously established individualising predictor, i.e. age. AMH measurement may assist decision-making regarding treatment options and fertility preservation procedures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Macaskill E.J.,Edinburgh Breast Unit | Dixon J.M.,Breakthrough Research Unit
Current Breast Cancer Reports | Year: 2012

Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy is safe and can be effective in many postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. There are limited data available for premenopausal women taking aromatase inhibitors in combination with estrogen suppression. Letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane have all been shown to be equivalent or superior to tamoxifen in relatively small neoadjuvant trials in postmenopausal women. Tumor factors that appear to have good response are estrogen receptor positivity, characteristics consistent with the so-called Luminal A subtype and lobular carcinomas. Response to neoadjuvant treatment may inform decision making regarding adjuvant treatment, which should include radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery, or mastectomy, made feasible by neoadjuvant treatment to maintain low local recurrence rates. Chemotherapy may also be required in some cases based on the biological characteristics of the residual tumor and the extent of residual disease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Cameron D.A.,Edinburgh Breast Unit | Cameron D.A.,University of Leeds | Douglas S.,Edinburgh Breast Unit | Douglas S.,University of Leeds | And 2 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

Pre-menopausal women given adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer experience both premature ovarian failure and loss of bone mineral density (BMD), and this study was designed to see if these observations are causally linked. Chemotherapy was administered to 41 premenopausal women with early breast cancer enrolled prospectively in a study of ovarian function and BMD in such women given systemic therapy. After giving written informed consent, all patients underwent baseline and regular on-Treatment measurements of BMD by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, bone turnover and ovarian function by analysis of serum hormone levels and self-reported menstrual diaries. Baseline lumbar spine BMD in the 41 women given chemotherapy was higher than the normal population (Z score 0.28 ± 0.14 (mean ± SEM), P = 0.047), and fell significantly over the first 6 months from a mean of 1.05-1.01 g/m2, P\0.0001, and similar but smaller changes were demonstrated in hip BMD. This fall was independent of age at diagnosis, type of chemotherapy, development of amenorrhoea or either baseline or on-Treatment estradiol concentration. During the 6 months after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, BMD fell further only in those women with low estradiol or experiencing amenorrhoea during the first 6 months, although all groups showed evidence of increased bone turnover. This study demonstrates loss of both spine and hip BMD in pre-menopausal women during 6 months' adjuvant systemic chemotherapy to be independent of changes in ovarian function. Ovarian function was, however, related to BMD changes after chemotherapy ceased. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010.


Glynn R.W.,Edinburgh Breast Unit | Williams L.,University of Edinburgh | Dixon J.M.,Edinburgh Breast Unit
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England | Year: 2010

INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to investigate the practice of axillary lymph node management within different units throughout the UK, and to assess changes in practice since our previous survey in 2004. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire was sent to 350 members of the British Association of Surgical Oncology. RESULTS: There were 177 replies from respondents who managed more than 100 patients a year with breast cancer. Of these: 12 did not perform axillary ultrasound at all in their centre; 17 (10%) employed axillary node clearance (ANC) on all patients; 122(69%) performed sentinel node biopsy (SNB) with dual localisation; and 111 respondents had attended the New Start Course. Radioisotope was most frequently injected 2 h or more before operation. Just 13 surgeons were convinced of the value of dissecting internal mammary nodes visualised on a scan. Reasons for not using dual localisation included lack of nuclear medicine facilities, no local ARSAC licence holder, no probe, and no funding. Sixty-six surgeons stated that, if they had an ARSAC licence and could inject the radioactivity in theatre, this would be a major improvement. In addition, 83 (47%) did not perform SLNB in patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant changes since 2004, substantial variation remains in management of the axilla. A number of surgeons are practicing outwith current guidelines.


Bing A.U.,Edinburgh Breast Unit | Loh S.F.,Edinburgh Breast Unit | Morris T.,United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit | Hughes H.,United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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