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Florsheim, Germany

Pelosi C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Anthropogenic activities and particularly agricultural management may harm soil organisms such as enchytraeids (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta, Annelida), also known as potworms. These small relatives of earthworms are widely distributed in different soils and land use forms, where they play an important role due to their burrowing activity, their fecal pellet production as well as their transport, ingestion and mixing of mineral and organic soil particles. However, relatively few studies have been performed with these organisms at crop sites – and this widely scattered information has not yet been compiled. Thus, this paper aims (i) to assess the relevance of enchytraeids as indicators of agricultural practices and cropping systems, and (ii) to pinpoint the knowledge gaps and the needs for further research. Out of 250 papers identified in a literature search about 70 were reviewed in detail. Contrasted results and no clear relationships between agricultural practices and the composition and activity of enchytraeid communities have been found in this review, since rarely one factor affecting enchytraeids has been studied alone, meaning that the study context is usually very complex, with several interactions which are difficult to assess. Almost never information about all factors potentially influencing enchytraeids is available and, finally, there are very few studies which had the same aims or designs, making them very difficult to compare even without considering the heterogeneity of agricultural sites in space and time. However, this review concludes that enchytraeids can be considered as indicators of management practices (e.g. soil tillage, inorganic fertilizers) since they are sensitive to changes, both in terms of abundance and species composition. Finally, it is recommended to perform a monitoring program at representative, well documented European sites in which not only the enchytraeid communities but also as many as possible factors influencing them are measured over a period of at least five years. © 2016 Source

Zachmann D.W.,TU Braunschweig | van der Veen A.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Friese K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2013

The German Elbe River floodplains rank under the most polluted areas in Europe. A sudden concentration increase of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is documented in sediment profiles of Elbe bayous. The increase is dated to the mid of the 20th century (137Cs) and indicates industrialization of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) as the source of intense pollution. The collapse of the GDR and the industries in the 1990s is traced by a concentration decrease in young sediments. The contamination is restricted to an increase of unstable binding forms; the hydroxide binding form is predominant. The geogenic concentration portions are of normal level and remain stable throughout the profiles (0-2m). The equilibrium of contradictory binding forms in the sediments makes it mandatory not to interfere with the thermodynamic conditions and to keep the Elbe floodplain as an undisturbed ecological system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lumaret J.-P.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Errouissi F.,UR Biodiversite et Biologie des Populations | Floate K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Wardhaugh K.,11 Deane Street
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin doramectin and moxidectin. By comparison, information on compounds such as eprinomectin, emamectin and selamectin is still relatively scarce. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Soils host highly diverse organism communities organized in complex food webs that strongly contribute to biological soil functions. However, it is a problem to evaluate these contributions because there are only few methods available which directly address soil functioning and ecosystem services. In fact, there are just two functional methods, which are useful for assessing quantitavely the activity of soil organisms, especially invertebrates. Both are related to organic matter decomposition (and thus nutrient cycling): the litter-bag-test in which mass loss of organic material is measured, but takes a long time, and the bait-lamina test, which is used to measure soil invertebrates’ feeding activity and its vertical distribution in situ. Both methods are internationally standardized. Currently, the use of the bait-lamina test seems to increase, mainly because it has been recommended for regulatory applications. The experiences with the bait-lamina test as described in the literature including the paper of Musso et al. (2014) are a good basis for improvements to be recommended, such as performing a preliminary test for the identification of the most appropriate study duration, using a standard bait material (i.e. to facilitate the comparison of data sets from different studies), and optimizing the “classic” study design in order to increase the statistical power of the test. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Jansen M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Coors A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Coors A.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Stoks R.,Catholic University of Leuven | De Meester L.,Catholic University of Leuven
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2011

Natural populations that are exposed to pesticides in their environment may at the same time be exposed to natural stressors like parasites and predators, which may interact with pesticide exposure. This may not only impact target pest species but also a wide variety of non-target species. This review reports on a joint research program in the water flea Daphnia magna, a non-target species often used as model organism in ecology and ecotoxicology. The focus is on different aspects that are of key importance to understand the evolutionary ecology of pesticide exposure: (1) the capacity of natural populations to genetically adapt to pesticide exposure (2) the added complexity of synergistic effects caused by simultaneous exposure to natural stressors, and (3) the potential interference of evolutionary costs of adaptation to pesticide exposure. Our results showed that natural populations were able to rapidly evolve resistance to the pesticide carbaryl but at the expense of fitness costs. Individuals selected for carbaryl resistance had higher survival rates when exposed to the pesticide but also a greater susceptibility to the challenge imposed by the bacterial endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa. The evolved resistance to carbaryl was in some cases only expressed in the absence of fish kairomones. Further, it became clear that the responses to both exposure to single and combined stressors was for several life history variables strongly dependent upon past exposure to carbaryl. This indicates that past exposures to pesticides are important and can not be neglected when evaluating responses to current stressors. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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