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Florsheim, Germany

Pelosi C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Anthropogenic activities and particularly agricultural management may harm soil organisms such as enchytraeids (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta, Annelida), also known as potworms. These small relatives of earthworms are widely distributed in different soils and land use forms, where they play an important role due to their burrowing activity, their fecal pellet production as well as their transport, ingestion and mixing of mineral and organic soil particles. However, relatively few studies have been performed with these organisms at crop sites – and this widely scattered information has not yet been compiled. Thus, this paper aims (i) to assess the relevance of enchytraeids as indicators of agricultural practices and cropping systems, and (ii) to pinpoint the knowledge gaps and the needs for further research. Out of 250 papers identified in a literature search about 70 were reviewed in detail. Contrasted results and no clear relationships between agricultural practices and the composition and activity of enchytraeid communities have been found in this review, since rarely one factor affecting enchytraeids has been studied alone, meaning that the study context is usually very complex, with several interactions which are difficult to assess. Almost never information about all factors potentially influencing enchytraeids is available and, finally, there are very few studies which had the same aims or designs, making them very difficult to compare even without considering the heterogeneity of agricultural sites in space and time. However, this review concludes that enchytraeids can be considered as indicators of management practices (e.g. soil tillage, inorganic fertilizers) since they are sensitive to changes, both in terms of abundance and species composition. Finally, it is recommended to perform a monitoring program at representative, well documented European sites in which not only the enchytraeid communities but also as many as possible factors influencing them are measured over a period of at least five years. © 2016

Zachmann D.W.,TU Braunschweig | van der Veen A.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Friese K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2013

The German Elbe River floodplains rank under the most polluted areas in Europe. A sudden concentration increase of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is documented in sediment profiles of Elbe bayous. The increase is dated to the mid of the 20th century (137Cs) and indicates industrialization of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) as the source of intense pollution. The collapse of the GDR and the industries in the 1990s is traced by a concentration decrease in young sediments. The contamination is restricted to an increase of unstable binding forms; the hydroxide binding form is predominant. The geogenic concentration portions are of normal level and remain stable throughout the profiles (0-2m). The equilibrium of contradictory binding forms in the sediments makes it mandatory not to interfere with the thermodynamic conditions and to keep the Elbe floodplain as an undisturbed ecological system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lumaret J.-P.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Errouissi F.,UR Biodiversite et Biologie des Populations | Floate K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Wardhaugh K.,11 Deane Street
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin doramectin and moxidectin. By comparison, information on compounds such as eprinomectin, emamectin and selamectin is still relatively scarce. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Soils host highly diverse organism communities organized in complex food webs that strongly contribute to biological soil functions. However, it is a problem to evaluate these contributions because there are only few methods available which directly address soil functioning and ecosystem services. In fact, there are just two functional methods, which are useful for assessing quantitavely the activity of soil organisms, especially invertebrates. Both are related to organic matter decomposition (and thus nutrient cycling): the litter-bag-test in which mass loss of organic material is measured, but takes a long time, and the bait-lamina test, which is used to measure soil invertebrates’ feeding activity and its vertical distribution in situ. Both methods are internationally standardized. Currently, the use of the bait-lamina test seems to increase, mainly because it has been recommended for regulatory applications. The experiences with the bait-lamina test as described in the literature including the paper of Musso et al. (2014) are a good basis for improvements to be recommended, such as performing a preliminary test for the identification of the most appropriate study duration, using a standard bait material (i.e. to facilitate the comparison of data sets from different studies), and optimizing the “classic” study design in order to increase the statistical power of the test. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Coors A.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2011

Background: Previous studies reported on a large (> 80%) compliance between the observed toxicity of pesticide mixtures and their toxicity as predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA). The present study extents these findings to commercially sold and frequently applied pesticide mixtures by investigating whether the aquatic toxicity of 66 herbicidal and 53 fungicidal combination products, i.e., authorized plant protection products that contain two or more active substances, can reliably be predicted by CA. Results: In more than 50% of cases, the predicted and observed mixture toxicity deviated by less than factor 2. An indication for a synergistic interaction was only detected with regard to algal growth inhibition for mixtures of fungicides that inhibit different enzymes of ergosterol biosynthesis. The greatest degree of compliance between prediction and observation was found for the acute toxicity of fungicidal products towards Daphnia and fish, while the greatest degree of underestimation of product toxicity occurred for the acute toxicity of herbicidal products towards Daphnia and fish. Using the lowest available toxicity measures within taxonomic groups as the most conservative approach resulted in a bias towards overestimation of product toxicity, but did not eliminate cases of considerable underestimation of product toxicity. Conclusions: The results suggest that the CA concept can be applied to predict the aquatic toxicity of commercial pesticide mixtures using the heterogeneous data typically available in a risk assessment context for a number of clearly identified combinations of test species and pesticide types with reasonably small uncertainty. © 2011 Coors and Frische; licensee Springer.

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