Lumaret J.-P.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology |
Errouissi F.,UR Biodiversite et Biologie des Populations |
Floate K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Wardhaugh K.,11 Deane Street
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2012
The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin doramectin and moxidectin. By comparison, information on compounds such as eprinomectin, emamectin and selamectin is still relatively scarce. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
Pelosi C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016
Anthropogenic activities and particularly agricultural management may harm soil organisms such as enchytraeids (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta, Annelida), also known as potworms. These small relatives of earthworms are widely distributed in different soils and land use forms, where they play an important role due to their burrowing activity, their fecal pellet production as well as their transport, ingestion and mixing of mineral and organic soil particles. However, relatively few studies have been performed with these organisms at crop sites – and this widely scattered information has not yet been compiled. Thus, this paper aims (i) to assess the relevance of enchytraeids as indicators of agricultural practices and cropping systems, and (ii) to pinpoint the knowledge gaps and the needs for further research. Out of 250 papers identified in a literature search about 70 were reviewed in detail. Contrasted results and no clear relationships between agricultural practices and the composition and activity of enchytraeid communities have been found in this review, since rarely one factor affecting enchytraeids has been studied alone, meaning that the study context is usually very complex, with several interactions which are difficult to assess. Almost never information about all factors potentially influencing enchytraeids is available and, finally, there are very few studies which had the same aims or designs, making them very difficult to compare even without considering the heterogeneity of agricultural sites in space and time. However, this review concludes that enchytraeids can be considered as indicators of management practices (e.g. soil tillage, inorganic fertilizers) since they are sensitive to changes, both in terms of abundance and species composition. Finally, it is recommended to perform a monitoring program at representative, well documented European sites in which not only the enchytraeid communities but also as many as possible factors influencing them are measured over a period of at least five years. © 2016
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2010.2.1.4-4 | Award Amount: 9.99M | Year: 2011
The strategic goal of EcoFINDERS is to provide the EC with tools to design and implement soil strategies aimed at ensuring sustainable use of soils, including: i) Characterisation of European soil biodiversity; ii) Determination of relations between soil biodiversity, soil functions and ecosystem services; iii) Design of policy-relevant and cost-effective indicators for monitoring soil biodiversity. The project will: i) Develop and standardise tools and procedures to measure microbial and faunal diversity; ii) Describe the diversity of soil organisms (microbes and fauna), iii) Decipher the interactions among soil organisms and with plants through foodwebs and iv) Determine the role played by soil organisms in soils ecosystem services (nutrient cycling, carbon storage, water retention, soil structure regulation, resistance to pests and diseases, and regulation of above-ground diversity); iii) Establish cost-effective bioindicators for measuring sustainability of the microbial and faunal diversity and their associated functions (using a combination of metrics and meta-analysis); iv) Evaluate the economic value of ecosystem services, the added value of these bioindicators; v) Develop and implement effective communication strategies to engage the European public around issues associated with the sustainability of soil biodiversity. The overall concept of the project is to develop and integrate the following activities: i) Decipher the links between soil biodiversity, activities, functioning and ecosystem services; ii) Combine three types of approach: observation, experimentation, and computation; iii) Assess the impact of environmental conditions; iv) Integrate information on microbes, fauna and plant communities and analyse how these compartments interact. The general hypotheses are: changes in soil biodiversity indicate the direction and rate of changes in soil functions and associated ecosystem services; application of cost-effective bioindicators brings an economic added value to sustainable soil management.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 4.85M | Year: 2011
The Routes project is addressed to discover new routes in wastewater and sludge treatment which allow: a) to prepare sludge for agricultural utilization by transforming it in a very clean and stabilized product regarding the presence of organic micropollutants (conventional and emerging ones) and of heavy metals, and with respect to hygienic aspects and to phytotoxicity; b) to minimize sludge production by innovative solutions which can be based on different approaches, i.e.: i) metabolic uncoupling where the free energy released by electrons transport is dissipated in heat, in the activation of alternative metabolic routes or in the accumulation of polymeric products, ii) the use of microbial fuel cells, iii) the use of sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR), iiii) the integration of a side-stream process in membrane bioreactors; c) to promote recovery of valuable materials from anaerobic digestion, i.e. biopolymers as polyhydroxyalkanoates and fertilizers; e) to set up and prove at practical scale a novel technique for sludge disposal (wet oxidation) as sustainable alternative to nowadays the most used incineration; f) to minimize energy pumping by adjusting solid concentration, on a practical installation where sludge is pumped from the production site to a centralized plant. The general objective of the Routes proposal is therefore to set up a panel of different solutions to be applied in different conditions and circumstances, strictly following the waste hierarchy of the Directive 08/98 on waste. The above solutions will be studied either in laboratory or at practical scale, depending on the maturity of the technology, in order to provide to the Commission and the technical and scientific community applicable solutions and new routes for sludge management, also based on the best integration between the water and sludge treatment lines.
Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014
Soils host highly diverse organism communities organized in complex food webs that strongly contribute to biological soil functions. However, it is a problem to evaluate these contributions because there are only few methods available which directly address soil functioning and ecosystem services. In fact, there are just two functional methods, which are useful for assessing quantitavely the activity of soil organisms, especially invertebrates. Both are related to organic matter decomposition (and thus nutrient cycling): the litter-bag-test in which mass loss of organic material is measured, but takes a long time, and the bait-lamina test, which is used to measure soil invertebrates’ feeding activity and its vertical distribution in situ. Both methods are internationally standardized. Currently, the use of the bait-lamina test seems to increase, mainly because it has been recommended for regulatory applications. The experiences with the bait-lamina test as described in the literature including the paper of Musso et al. (2014) are a good basis for improvements to be recommended, such as performing a preliminary test for the identification of the most appropriate study duration, using a standard bait material (i.e. to facilitate the comparison of data sets from different studies), and optimizing the “classic” study design in order to increase the statistical power of the test. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Zachmann D.W.,TU Braunschweig |
van der Veen A.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Friese K.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2013
The German Elbe River floodplains rank under the most polluted areas in Europe. A sudden concentration increase of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is documented in sediment profiles of Elbe bayous. The increase is dated to the mid of the 20th century (137Cs) and indicates industrialization of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) as the source of intense pollution. The collapse of the GDR and the industries in the 1990s is traced by a concentration decrease in young sediments. The contamination is restricted to an increase of unstable binding forms; the hydroxide binding form is predominant. The geogenic concentration portions are of normal level and remain stable throughout the profiles (0-2m). The equilibrium of contradictory binding forms in the sediments makes it mandatory not to interfere with the thermodynamic conditions and to keep the Elbe floodplain as an undisturbed ecological system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Coors A.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2011
Background: Previous studies reported on a large (> 80%) compliance between the observed toxicity of pesticide mixtures and their toxicity as predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA). The present study extents these findings to commercially sold and frequently applied pesticide mixtures by investigating whether the aquatic toxicity of 66 herbicidal and 53 fungicidal combination products, i.e., authorized plant protection products that contain two or more active substances, can reliably be predicted by CA. Results: In more than 50% of cases, the predicted and observed mixture toxicity deviated by less than factor 2. An indication for a synergistic interaction was only detected with regard to algal growth inhibition for mixtures of fungicides that inhibit different enzymes of ergosterol biosynthesis. The greatest degree of compliance between prediction and observation was found for the acute toxicity of fungicidal products towards Daphnia and fish, while the greatest degree of underestimation of product toxicity occurred for the acute toxicity of herbicidal products towards Daphnia and fish. Using the lowest available toxicity measures within taxonomic groups as the most conservative approach resulted in a bias towards overestimation of product toxicity, but did not eliminate cases of considerable underestimation of product toxicity. Conclusions: The results suggest that the CA concept can be applied to predict the aquatic toxicity of commercial pesticide mixtures using the heterogeneous data typically available in a risk assessment context for a number of clearly identified combinations of test species and pesticide types with reasonably small uncertainty. © 2011 Coors and Frische; licensee Springer.
Owojori O.J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Owojori O.J.,Obafemi Awolowo University |
Waszak K.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Roembke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2014
Few toxicity data exist in the literature on the toxicity of chemicals to the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, but no information is available on its avoidance response. To assess the relevance of the avoidance behavior of H. aculeifer and the relative sensitivity of the mite in comparison with other invertebrates, avoidance and reproduction tests were conducted with 7 chemicals using standardized guidelines. The chemicals (deltamethrin, chloropyrifos, dimethoate, Cu, NaCl, phenanthrene, and boric acid) were selected so as to cover varying chemical classes. For all 3 pesticides tested, avoidance response showed lower sensitivity than reproduction and survival (avoidance median effective concentration [EC50] > reproduction EC50/median lethal concentration [LC50] values). However, for Cu, NaCl, and phenanthrene, the avoidance response showed similar sensitivity as reproduction (avoidance EC50 ≤ reproduction EC50 values), whereas for boric acid, similar sensitivity as survival (avoidance EC50 ≤ LC50 values). Although the mite H. aculeifer appears less sensitive to some of the chemicals tested than most other soil invertebrates, its status as the only predator among organisms for which standardized tests are available affirms its inclusion in routine ecotoxicity assessment. The results of the avoidance test with H. aculeifer suggest its potential usefulness as a rapid screening test for risk assessment purposes. © 2013 SETAC.
Stalter D.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Magdeburg A.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Weil M.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Knacker T.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH |
Oehlmann J.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Water Research | Year: 2010
Ozonation as advanced wastewater treatment method is an effective technique for micropollutant removal. However, the application of this method carries the inherent danger to produce toxic oxidation byproducts. For an ecotoxicological assessment conventionally treated wastewater, wastewater after ozonation and ozonated wastewater after sand filtration were evaluated in parallel at an operating treatment plant via the fish early life stage toxicity test (FELST) using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The FELST revealed a considerable developmental retardation of test organisms exposed to ozonated WW. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in body weight and length compared to reference water, to the conventionally treated WW and to the ozonated water after sand filtration. Hence sand filtration obviously prevents from adverse ecotoxicological effects of ozonation. An additional test with yolk-sac larvae resulted in a significant reduction of vitellogenin levels in fish exposed to ozonated wastewater compared to fish reared in conventionally treated wastewater. This demonstrates the effective removal of estrogenic activity by ozonation. Adverse ozonation effects may have been a result of the conversion of chemicals into more toxic metabolites. However, sand filtration reduced toxication effects indicating that these oxidation byproducts are readily degradable or adsorbable. The results indicate that in any case ozonation should not be applied without subsequent post treatment appropriate for oxidation byproducts removal (e.g. sand filtration). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2008.5.1.0.1. | Award Amount: 961.99K | Year: 2009
The ComEnvir project aims to narrow the gap between EU sponsored environmental research and European citizens. Water (resources, quality, pollution and biodiversity issues) has been chosen as a common theme to be addressed by the project. It will cover environmental stressors, waste treatment, health effects, biodiversity, risks and therefore the role of water quality in its different environmental locations (fresh water, marine, soil, air). The project will last 48 months. The project will communicate results and activities of EU environmental research with two specific target groups. The primary target group are teachers and students. The second target group is the general public. The overall project objectives are to: empower the European citizens to constructively engage in scientific dialogue and debate inform European consumers of the latest scientific advances in the food sector strengthen science education in classrooms and promote scientific curiosity among the youth The ComEnvir project will achieve its set objectives through a number of innovative approaches and strategies that have already been piloted in 2006 and 2007. These approaches centre around three key elements: creation of knowledge packages on EU environmental research and will include films, film clips, FAQs, news, background reading materials, a glossary and links effective dissemination measures (broadcast media, DVDs and internet) and thorough evaluation of on-going project deliverables The nine project members, located in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway and the UK possess complementary expertise that assures successful project outcome. The project will last 48 months.