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Minetto D.,University of Venice | Libralato G.,University of Venice | Libralato G.,Ecsin European Center For The Sustainable Impact Of Nanotechnology Veneto Nanotech Scpa | Volpi Ghirardini A.,University of Venice
Environment International | Year: 2014

The innovative properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for various applications in many fields. In particular, TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) are widely used in paints, in cosmetics and in sunscreens that are products accessible to the mass market. Despite the great increase in the use of such nanomaterials, there is a paucity of general information about their potential effects to the aquatic species, especially to saltwater ones. Moreover, the difficulties of determining the effective exposure scenario make the acquired information low comparable. In this work, questions about the complexity of the real exposure scenario determination are discussed. The state of the art, concerning the experimental activities with nTiO2 toward the saltwater organisms is firstly illustrated, providing statistical information about the different matrices, organisms and nanoparticles employed. A comparison of the nTiO2 ecotoxicity effects, grouped by taxonomic classes, is provided illustrating their relative experimental conditions. Findings show the need to develop specific protocols for toxicity tests with ENPs to control the variability of experimental conditions. Some advices are finally proposed for the future experimental activities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Sabbioni E.,University of Chieti Pescara | Sabbioni E.,Ecsin European Center For The Sustainable Impact Of Nanotechnology Veneto Nanotech Scpa | Polettini A.-E.,University of Verona | Fortaner S.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

75Se-selenite transfer was investigated in a phytoplankton-mussel-rat food chain model consisting of Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing, Unio mancus Lamark and Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout. 75Se-metabolized forms were investigated in order to identify potential critical steps in the food chain, as well as its relative bioavailability looking also at intracellular, cellular and organ partitioning. Tissue and intracellular distribution of 75Se in mussels fed with 75Se-S. obliquus was different compared to those exposed only to inorganic 75Se-selenite. The intracellular distribution of 75Se in the hepatopancreas and mantle of mussels fed 75Se-microalgae was similar to hepatic and renal distributions in rats, suggesting that their stomach dissociated larger 75Se-containing molecules. The 75Se partitioned from water (culture medium) to microalgae showing a bioconcentration factor of 435. The bottleneck in the trophic transfer of 75Se occurred between S. obliquus–U. mancus. From microalgae to mussels and subsequently to rats no bioaccumulation was verified. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York

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