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van Bogaert I.N.A.,Ghent University | Roelants S.,Ghent University | Develter D.,Ecover Belgium NV | Soetaert W.,Ghent University
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2010

Sophorolipids production by the yeast Candia bombicola is most favourable when glucose is used as a carbon source in combination with a hydrophobic carbon source such as a common vegetable oil. Most vegetable oils are comprised of C16-C18 fatty acids, an ideal range for sophorolipid production. The use of oils with either shorter or longer fatty acids, such has coconut oil or meadowfoam oil, respectively, was evaluated. Such oils did not contribute to enhanced sophorolipid production when compared to cultures run on glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, a toxic effect of medium-chain fatty acids towards stationary C. bombicola cells was demonstrated. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Van Bogaert I.,Ghent University | Fleurackers S.,Ecover Belgium NV | Van Kerrebroeck S.,Ghent University | Develter D.,Ecover Belgium NV | Soetaert W.,Ghent University
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2011

The naturally occurring sophorolipids synthesized by Candida bombicola possess-despite their overall heterogeneity-little variation in the length of the lipid tail. The range is limited to C16-C18 fatty acids and is governed by the specificity of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. However, incorporation of fatty acids differing from the conventional C16-C18 range could broaden up the application potential of sophorolipids. The incorporation of medium-chain fatty acids should render the molecules more hydrophilic and consequently improve their water solubility. Two strategies to circumvent this C16-C18 preference are described in this paper. The first one skips the controlling action of the cytochrome P450 enzyme by supplying the yeast with already hydroxylated substrates, while the other method is based on the deception of the enzyme by presenting it substrates structurally resembling stearic acid. This later strategy can be applied to create very specific tailor-made sophorolipids when combined with post-fermentive modification. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Geibler J.V.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate | Wiesen K.,Wuppertal Institute for Climate | Mostyn R.,Robert Stewart Mostyn | Werner M.,TriaGnoSys GmbH | And 7 more authors.
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2014

The limited data availability, transparency and harmonisation in environmental assessments of products are bottlenecks for improved environmental and sustainability governance. Despite the progressive developments of information and communication systems, reliable, accurate, up-to-date data for assessing the resource use of products and services is still lacking. Resource accounting systems often have limited scope on single companies, processes or products. This paper presents an approach for an automated bottom-up accounting system for measuring resource efficiency at product and service level. It is based on a global collaborative network of resource accounting nodes connected for the accounting of natural resources use for products and services. Using an Internet-based service-oriented architecture, relevant and timely data is passed from supplier to customer recursively through the whole value chain to produce an "ecoCost" for each product or service. This conceptual paper reflects first experiences from partners of the myEcoCost project funded by European Commission ( ©(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Palme O.,TU Braunschweig | Comanescu G.,TU Braunschweig | Stoineva I.,TU Braunschweig | Stoineva I.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The yeast Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 is well-known to produce mixtures of glycolipids containing the sugar sophorose, the so-called sophorolipids, especially when cultivated on hydrophobic carbon sources as co-substrates. To improve cultivation efficiency, an integrated process was developed using ultrasound separation technology. Since this technology is new for use with C. bombicola, it was first characterized in batch experiments and afterwards implemented in an integrated production process. In this process, separation efficiencies of about 99% C. bombicola cells could be achieved, leading to 8 g/L of nearly cell-free sophorolipid product and a total amount of 73.8 g/L sophorolipids. Furthermore, a technical mixture of unusual branched fatty alcohols containing mainly 2-hexyl-1-decanol was used as co-substrate with glucose in a shake flask study. This resulted in the production of a new product, 1-O-β-glucopyranosyl-2-hexyldecanol, a molecule containing glucose as the sugar moiety and 2-hexyl-1-decanol as a branched hydrophobic side chain. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Develter D.W.G.,Ecover Belgium N.V. | Lauryssen L.M.L.,Ecover Belgium N.V.
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Sophorolipids are glycolipids that can be produced by bioconversion of native and renewable feedstocks such as rapeseed oil. These attractive surfactants combine green chemistry and a lower carbon footprint without the undesirable side products or environmental downsides associated with many market reference surfactants. Sophorolipids are reported to be fully biodegradable and to have a low acute toxicity. This study demonstrates that they do not affect Daphnia reproduction, and that the chronic toxicity is an order of magnitude lower than that of reference surfactants, with a no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of 11.3 mg/L as compared to approximately 1 mg/L. Their minimum surface tension was found to be 32.1-34.2 mN/m depending on the method used. Sophorolipids are shown to be useful in hard surface cleaning and automatic dishwashing rinse aid formulations. This is attributed in part to their low foaming profile combined with their surface activity properties, which are of potential interest in additional applications. They combine an outstanding environmental profile with excellent performance, and are thus suitable for use in commercial household products. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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