Merrifield M.S.,The Nature Conservancy |
McClintock W.,University of California at Santa Barbara |
Burt C.,University of California at Santa Barbara |
Fox E.,Marine Life Protection Act Initiative |
And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
The creation of a spatial decision support system that enabled stakeholder participation in designing marine protected areas (MPAs) was a necessary component of the planning process for California's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) Initiative. Implementation of the MLPA required stakeholders to understand and use a complicated set of spatial and scientific guidelines for MPA design that relied heavily on geographic information. Tools for the delivery and visualization of geographic information have changed radically in the seven years of planning during the MLPA Initiative. We collaborated to create a state-of-the-art spatial decision support system called MarineMap to facilitate the design and evaluation of MPA proposals. MarineMap provided an intuitive user experience that simplified complicated spatial concepts, delivered critical information immediately to allow users to iterate through scenarios rapidly. This tool provided transparency in the process, and moved spatial analysis away from the domain of GIS experts to a broader group of stakeholders. We think the lessons from this experience can contribute to the further development of tools and approaches for coastal and marine spatial planning more broadly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Ford J.S.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans |
Pelletier N.L.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra |
Ziegler F.,Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology |
Scholz A.J.,Ecotrust |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2012
In this study we discuss impact categories and indicators to incorporate local ecological impacts into life cycle assessment (LCA) for aquaculture. We focus on the production stages of salmon farming-freshwater hatcheries used to produce smolts and marine grow-out sites using open netpens. Specifically, we propose two impact categories: impacts of nutrient release and impacts on biodiversity. Proposed indicators for impacts of nutrient release are (1) the area altered by farm waste, (2) changes in nutrient concentration in the water column, (3) the percent of carrying capacity reached, (4) the percent of total anthropogenic nutrient release, and (5) release of wastes into freshwater. Proposed indicators for impacts on biodiversity are (1) the number of escaped salmon, (2) the number of reported disease outbreaks, (3) parasite abundance on farms, and (4) the percent reduction in wild salmon survival. For each proposed indicator, an example of how the indicator could be estimated is given and the strengths and weaknesses of that indicator are discussed. We propose that including local environmental impacts as well as global-scale ones in LCA allows us to better identify potential trade-offs, where actions that are beneficial at one scale are harmful at another, and synchronicities, where actions have desirable or undesirable effects at both spatial scales. We also discuss the potential applicability of meta-analytic statistical techniques to LCA. © 2012 by Yale University.
Klein C.J.,University of Queensland |
Tulloch V.J.,University of Queensland |
Halpern B.S.,National Center for Ecological Analysis And Synthesis |
Halpern B.S.,University of California at Santa Barbara |
And 6 more authors.
Conservation Letters | Year: 2013
We present a novel method for designing marine reserves that trades off three important attributes of a conservation plan: habitat condition, habitat representation, and socioeconomic costs. We calculated habitat condition in four ways, using different human impacts as a proxy for condition: all impacts; impacts that cannot be managed with a reserve; land-based impacts; and climate change impacts. We demonstrate our approach in California, where three important tradeoffs emerged. First, reserve systems that have a high chance of protecting good condition habitats cost fishers less than 3.1% of their income. Second, cost to fishers can be reduced by 1/2-2/3 by triaging less than 1/3 of habitats. Finally, increasing the probability of protecting good condition habitats from 50% to 99% costs fishers an additional 1.7% of their income, with roughly 0.3% added costs for each additional 10% confidence. Knowing exactly what the cost of these tradeoffs are informs discussion and potential compromise among stakeholders involved in protected area planning worldwide. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Klein C.J.,University of Queensland |
Steinback C.,Ecotrust |
Watts M.,University of Queensland |
Scholz A.J.,Ecotrust |
Possingham H.P.,University of Queensland
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2010
Protected areas are an effective tool for reducing biodiversity loss. Current legislation distinguishes various typesof marine protected areas, each allowing different levels of resource extraction. However, almost all of the theory for spatial conservation planning is focused on identifying no-takereserves. The current approaches to zoning for multiple typesof protected areas could result in suboptimal plans in terms of protecting biodiversity and minimizing negative socioeconomic impacts. We overcame these limitations in the first application of the multizone planning tool, Marxan with Zones, to design a network of four types of protected areas in the context of California's Marine Life Protection Act. We have produced a zoning configuration that entails mean value losses of less than 9% for every fishery, without compromising conservation goals. We also found that a spatial numerical optimization tool that allows for multiple zones outperforms a tool that can identify one zone (ie marine reserves) in two ways: first, the overall impact on the fishing industry is reduced, and second, a more equitable impact on different fishing sectors is achieved. Finally, we examined the tradeoffs between representing biodiversity features and impacting fisheries. Our approach is applicable to both marine and terrestrial conservation planning, and delivers an ecosystem-based management outcome that balances conservation and industry objectives. © The Ecological Society of America.
Kruse S.A.,Ecosystem Economics |
Bernstein B.,Independent Consultant |
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2015
The 27 oil and gas platforms offshore southern California will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030) and will be decommissioned. Current state and federal laws and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. Any decommissioning pathway will create a complex mix of costs, benefits, opportunities, and constraints for multiple user groups. To assist the California Natural Resources Agency in understanding these issues, we evaluated the potential socioeconomic impacts of the 2 most likely options: complete removal and partial removal of the structure to 85 feet below the waterline with the remaining structure left in place as an artificial reef-generally defined as a manmade structure with some properties that mimic a natural reef. We estimated impacts on commercial fishing, commercial shipping, recreational fishing, nonconsumptive boating, and nonconsumptive SCUBA diving. Available data supported quantitative estimates for some impacts, semiquantitative estimates for others, and only qualitative approximations of the direction of impact for still others. Even qualitative estimates of the direction of impacts and of user groups' likely preferred options have been useful to the public and decision makers and provided valuable input to the project's integrative decision model. Uncertainty surrounds even qualitative estimates of the likely direction of impact where interactions between multiple impacts could occur or where user groups include subsets that would experience the same option differently. In addition, we were unable to quantify effects on ecosystem value and on the larger regional ecosystem, because of data gaps on the population sizes and dynamics of key species and the uncertainty surrounding the contribution of platforms to available hard substrate and related natural populations offshore southern California. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;X:000-000. © 2015 SETAC.
Leopold M.,Ird Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement |
Guillemot N.,Ird Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement |
Guillemot N.,Agrocampus Ouest |
Guillemot N.,British Petroleum |
And 2 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2014
Collecting spatial information on fisheries catch and effort is essential to understanding the spatial processes of exploited population dynamics and to manage heterogeneously distributed resources and uses. The use of fishers' knowledge through geographical information systems (GISs) is increasingly considered as a promising source of local information on small-scale coastal fisheries. In this paper we describe the first framework for mapping entire small-scale coastal fisheries using fishers' knowledge on catch size and fishing effort. Four mangrove and coral reef fisheries targeting invertebrates or finfish in New Caledonia (southwest Pacific) were mapped following a five-step framework: (i) stratified random sampling of regular fishers; (ii) collection of fishers' knowledge of fishing areas, fishing effort, and catch size through map-based interviews; (iii) data integration into a spatial geodatabase; (iv) statistical extrapolation of fisher data to the fishery scale; and (v) mapping of catch, effort, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) for each fishery using a GIS overlay procedure. We found evidence that fishers' knowledge supplied precise and accurate quantitative and spatial information on catch size, fishing effort and CPUE for entire fisheries. Fisheries maps captured the fine-scale spatial distribution of fishing activities in a variety of ways according to target taxa, gear type, and home ports. Applications include area-based marine conservation planning and fishery monitoring, management, and governance. This integrated framework can be generalized to a large range of data-poor coastal and inland small-scale fisheries. © International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014. All rights reserved.
Kellon C.P.,Ecotrust |
Sapiens | Year: 2014
For nearly twenty years in the western United States, billions of dollars have been spent to recover anadromous salmon species listed under the federal Endangered Species Act. Broad support and participation from the private and public sectors is needed to address the limiting factors to salmon viability, especially the improvement of stream and watershed health. However, in today's fiscal and political climate it is more important than ever to demonstrate the multiple ways that conservation work benefits not just the environment but also our economy. This paper examines the employment and economic impacts of watershed restoration expenditures made in Oregon from 2001-2010, making use of multipliers developed by the University of Oregon's Ecosystem Workforce Program. We collected data on salmon habitat restoration projects from a statewide database system, the Oregon Watershed Restoration Inventory, and grouped project activities according to the University of Oregon restoration employment and economic multiplier categories. To determine the total direct, indirect, and induced economic output and employment resulting from restoration investments, we multiplied the total project investment in each category of restoration work by the relevant multiplier. We then summed the total economic activity by project type to arrive at a total per county and the state. We found that a total of US$411.4 million was invested in 6,740 watershed restoration projects throughout the state of Oregon from 2001 to 2010, resulting in the generation of between $752.4 million and $977.5 million in economic output and 4,628 to 6,483 jobs. The jobs created by restoration activities are located mostly in rural areas, in communities hard hit by the economic downturn. Restoration activities bring a range of employment opportunities for people in construction, engineering, natural resource sciences, and other fields. The job creation potential of restoration activities compared with investments in other sectors of the economy is favorable. Restoration also stimulates demand for the products and services of local businesses such as plant nurseries, heavy equipment companies, and rock and gravel companies. Unlike in other economic sectors, restoration jobs can't be outsourced to distant locations, so these dollars tend to stay in the local and state economy. Restoration investments also continue to accrue and pay out over time. Long-term improvements in habitat create enduring benefits, from enhanced recreational and fishing opportunities to the provision of critical ecosystem services. These findings are good news to the people of Oregon and there is tremendous opportunity to extend and replicate this work to other regions. Being able to effectively communicate the interdependencies of ecosystems and economies is critical to addressing the immense challenges of the 21st century. As long as we continue to frame trade-offs in simplistic terms like jobs versus the environment, we will be relegated to making incremental change. Whether our aim is the recovery of wild salmon in the Western United States or the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions; alternative models for economic development need to be redoubled. We have found that quantifying and presenting the economic benefits of watershed restoration reframes the conversation and opens doors to new alliances. © Licence Creative Commons.
Scholz A.J.,Ecotrust |
Steinback C.,Ecotrust |
Kruse S.A.,Ecotrust |
Mertens M.,Ecotrust |
Conservation Biology | Year: 2011
Social, economic, and ecological criteria contribute to the successful design, implementation, and management of marine protected areas (MPAs). In the context of California's Marine Life Protection Act Initiative, we developed a set of methods for collecting, compiling, and analyzing data about the spatial extent and relative economic importance of commercial and recreational fishing. We interviewed 174 commercial fishers who represented the major fisheries in the initiative's north-central coast region, which extends from Point Arena south to Pigeon Point. These fishers provided data that we used to map the extent of each of the fishing grounds, to weight the relative importance of areas within the grounds, to characterize the operating costs of each fishery, and to analyze the potential economic losses associated with proposed marine protected areas. A regional stakeholder group used the maps and impact analyses in conjunction with other data sets to iteratively identify economic and ecological trade-offs in designations of different areas as MPAs at regional, port, and fishery extents. Their final proposed MPA network designated 20% of state waters as MPAs. Potential net economic loss ranged from 1.7% to 14.2% in the first round of network design and totaled 6.3% in the final round of design. This process is a case study in the application of spatial analysis to validate and integrate local stakeholder knowledge in marine planning. ©2010 Commercial to ELOTRUST Conservation Biology ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.
Ecotrust | Date: 2012-04-10
Computer software for maritime electronic data collection, aggregation, and analysis; Downloadable software in the nature of a mobile application for maritime electronic data collection.
Ecotrust | Date: 2012-04-09
downloadable computer software platform for creating spatial planning tools.