Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz, Argentina
Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz, Argentina

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Peltzer P.M.,CONICET | Peltzer P.M.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | Junges C.M.,CONICET | Junges C.M.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2013

In this study, amphibian tadpoles of Hypsiboas pulchellus were exposed to herbicide Liberty®, which contains glufosinate ammonium (GLA), for 48 h to the following concentrations: 0 (control), 3.55, 4.74, 6.32, 8.43, 11.25, 15, 20, 26.6, and 35.5 mg GLA L-1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities, as well as swimming capabilities (swimming speed and mean distance) were measured in tadpoles whose concentrations displayed survival rates >85 %. Our results reveal that sublethal concentrations of GLA significantly inhibited both AChE and BChE activities in tadpoles with respect to the control, showing a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The highest inhibition percentages of AChE (50.86 %) and BChE (53.02 %) were registered in tadpoles exposed to 15 mg GLA L-1. At this concentration, a significant increase of the swimming speed and mean distance were found in exposed tadpoles with respect to the control, as well as a negative and significant correlation between swimming speed and BChE activity, thus suggesting that this enzyme inhibition is related to an increase in swimming speed. Therefore, exposure of tadpoles to GLA in the wild at concentrations similar to those tested here may have adverse consequences at population level because neurotransmission and swimming performance are essential for tadpole performance and survival. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Lajmanovich R.C.,CONICET | Lajmanovich R.C.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | Junges C.M.,CONICET | Junges C.M.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2013

We investigated the effects of four commercial formulations of herbicides (glyphosate [GLY], metsulfuron-methyl [MET], bispyribac-sodium [BIS], and picloram [PIC]) individually, and in three 50:50 mixtures (GLY-MET, GLY-BIS, GLY-PIC) on the common toad Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles. Enzymatic parameters such as, glutathione S-transferase (GST), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) were studied. Interactions between herbicides in mixtures were evaluated and classified as additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Toxicity results (48-h LC50) showed that PIC was the most toxic herbicide, followed by BIS, GLY, and MET, while GLY-PIC was the most toxic mixture, followed by GLY-BIS, and GLY-MET. All commercial herbicide formulations and their mixtures significantly inhibited BChE activity in exposed tadpoles. The AChE activity was also inhibited by all herbicides and their mixtures, except by GLY-BIS. The inhibition of GST activity was only significant for GLY, MET, PIC, and GLY-MET. A significant increase in the frequency of ENA was found for tadpoles exposed either to commercial herbicide formulations or to mixtures, except for GLY. All the mixtures showed synergism for BChE activity while for AChE only the GLY-MET and GLY-PIC mixtures acted synergistically. GLY-MET showed synergism for GST, whereas for ENA, the mixture GLY-BIS was antagonistic. This study with R. arenarum tadpoles demonstrates that the interactions between three of the most intensively used herbicides in soybean crops results in synergistic effects on mortality and neurotoxicity and synergistic or additive effects in genotoxicity. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Katsonouri A.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | Demetriadou C.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | Karavi E.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | Schou C.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory | Chrysanthou E.,Ecotoxicology Laboratory
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2012

To address water scarcity, the Cyprus government adopted a multifaceted water development strategy of collecting, producing, recycling and conserving water, under strict national legislative control and in compliance with EU directives. The official monitoring of surface and recycled water builds on a holistic approach, which includes chemical, ecotoxicological and microbiological (in the case of recycled water) testing. This work describes the introduction of genotoxicity and mutagenicity testing in the holistic monitoring of water quality in Cyprus. Recycled, surface, ground and drinking water samples were assessed for genotoxicity and mutagenicity via bacterial reversion tests, using the SOS-Chromo Test™ kit and two kits based on the well known "Ames test" kits, namely the Muta-Chromo Plate™ kit and the Ames MPF™ Mutagenicity 98/100 AQUA kit. In addition, toxicity was assessed using the Microtox®test and the Daphtoxkit F™ magna kit. Overall, water samples found to be mutagenic were not necessarily positive for toxicity. It was also notable that the SOS-Chromo Test™ kit, developed to evaluate the primary response to cell damage measured by promoter activity of the SOS-repair genes did not detect any genotoxicity in the samples tested, despite a positive mutagenicity result in some of the samples via the Muta-Chromo Plate Test™ kit Finally in a pilot investigation, the Microtox®test, the SOSChromoTest™ and the Muta-Chromo Plate™ test were employed to test the hypothesis that under high temperature and sunlight, conditions that prevail during the hot Mediterranean summers, bottled drinking water may become contaminated with hazardous compounds from the plastic package. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of incorporating a mutagenicity test in the holistic monitoring of water quality. © by PSP.

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