Ecotox Services Australasia Pty Ltd.

Lane Cove, Australia

Ecotox Services Australasia Pty Ltd.

Lane Cove, Australia
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Howe P.L.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Reichelt-Brushett A.J.,Southern Cross University of Australia | Krassoi R.,Ecotox Services Australasia Pty. Ltd | Micevska T.,Ecotox Services Australasia Pty. Ltd
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

The sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (formally Aiptasia pulchella) has been identified as a valuable test species for tropical marine ecotoxicology. Here, the sensitivities of newly developed endpoints for E. pallida to two unidentified whole effluents were compared to a standard suite of temperate toxicity test species and endpoints that are commonly used in toxicological risk assessments for tropical marine environments. For whole effluent 1 (WE1), a 96-h lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) of 40 (95 % confidence intervals, 30–54) % v/v and a 12-day LC50 of 12 (9–15) % v/v were estimated for E. pallida, exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity than standard sub-lethal endpoints in Allorchestes compressa (96-h effective concentration 50 % (EC50) of >100 % v/v for immobilisation) and Hormosira banksii (72-h EC50 of >100 % v/v for germination), and a similar sensitivity to Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis larval development with a 48-h LC50 of 29 (28–30) % v/v. Sub-lethal effects of whole effluent 2 (WE2) on E. pallida pedal lacerate development resulted in an 8-day EC50 of 7 (3–11) % v/v, demonstrating comparable sensitivity of this endpoint to standardised sub-lethal endpoints in H. banksii (72-h EC50 of 11 (10–11) % v/v for germination), M. edulis galloprovincialis (48-h EC50 for larval development of 12 (9–14) % v/v) and Heliocidaris tuberculata (1-h EC50 of 13 (12–14) % v/v for fertilisation; 72-h EC50 of 26 (25–27) % v/v for larval development) and a significantly higher sensitivity than A. compressa immobilisation (96-h EC50 of >100 % v/v). The sensitivity of E. pallida compared to a standard test species suite highlights the value in standardising the newly developed toxicity test methods for inclusion in routine toxicological risk assessment of complex whole effluents. Importantly, this species provides an additional taxonomic group to the test species that are currently available for tropical marine ecotoxicology and, being a cnidarian, may represent important tropical marine environments including coral reefs. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Rahman M.A.,University of Technology, Sydney | Hogan B.,University of Technology, Sydney | Duncan E.,University of Canberra | Doyle C.,Ecotox Services Australasia Pty. Ltd. | And 9 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2014

In the environment, arsenic (As) exists in a number of chemical species, and arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) dominate in freshwater systems. Toxicity of As species to aquatic organisms is complicated by their interaction with chemicals in water such as phosphate that can influence the bioavailability and uptake of AsV. In the present study, the toxicities of AsIII, AsV and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) to three freshwater organisms representing three phylogenetic groups: a phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. strain CE-35), a floating macrophyte (Lemna disperma) and a cladoceran grazer (Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia), were determined using acute and growth inhibition bioassays (EC50) at a range of total phosphate (TP) concentrations in OECD medium. The EC50 values of AsIII, AsV and DMA were 27±10, 1.15±0.04 and 19±3mg L-1 for Chlorella sp. CE-35; 0.57±0.16, 2.3±0.2 and 56±15mgL-1 for L. disperma, and 1.58±0.05, 1.72±0.01 and 5.9±0.1mgL-1 for C. cf. dubia, respectively. The results showed that AsIII was more toxic than AsV to L. disperma; however, AsV was more toxic than AsIII to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicities of AsIII and AsV to C. cf. dubia were statistically similar (p>0.05). DMA was less toxic than iAs species to L. disperma and C. cf. dubia, but more toxic than AsIII to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicity of AsV to Chlorella sp. CE-35 and L. disperma decreased with increasing TP concentrations in the growth medium. Phosphate concentrations did not influence the toxicity of AsIII to either organism. Chlorella sp. CE-35 showed the ability to reduce AsV to AsIII, indicating a substantial influence of phytoplankton on As biogeochemistry in freshwater aquatic systems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Bishop M.J.,Macquarie University | Krassoi F.R.,University of Technology, Sydney | Krassoi F.R.,Ecotox Services Australasia Pty Ltd. | McPherson R.G.,University of Technology, Sydney | And 4 more authors.
Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2010

Proliferation of species introduced for aquaculture can threaten the ecological and economic integrity of ecosystems. We assessed whether the non-native Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, has proliferated, spread and overgrown native Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, following the 1991 decision to permit its aquaculture within this estuary. Sampling of seven rocky-shore and four mangrove sites immediately before (1990), immediately after (1991-1992) and nearly two decades after (2008) the commencement of C. gigas aquaculture did not support the hypotheses of C. gigas proliferation, spread or overgrowth of S. glomerata. The non-native oyster, uncommon immediately before the commencement of aquaculture, remained confined to the inner port and its percentage contribution to oyster assemblages generally declined over the two decades. C. gigas populations were dominated by individuals of <40-mm shell height, with established adults being rare. Only at one site was there an increase in C. gigas abundance that was accompanied by S. glomerata decline. The failure of C. gigas in Port Stephens to cause the catastrophic changes in fouling assemblages seen elsewhere in the world is likely to reflect estuarine circulation patterns that restrict larval transport and susceptibility of the oysters to native predators. © 2010 CSIRO.


Golding L.A.,CSIRO | Angel B.M.,CSIRO | Batley G.E.,CSIRO | Apte S.C.,CSIRO | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2015

Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24μg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10=18μg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10=250μg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10=410μg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4-) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)30) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. © 2014 SETAC.


Lee K.-M.,Macquarie University | Lee K.-M.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Krassoi F.R.,Ecotox Services Australasia Pty Ltd | Bishop M.J.,Macquarie University
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2012

Patterns of settlement and postsettlement mortality determine the distribution and abundance of sessile marine organisms. In mangrove forests and on rocky shores of eastern Australia, the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, displays a pattern of declining abundance with increasing tidal elevation that might be related to or independent of the tidal elevation gradient in the substrate (bare, dead conspecifics, live conspecifics) available for attachment. We conducted parallel manipulative experiments on a rocky shore and in a mangrove forest to assess (1) the relative importance of tidal elevation and substrate type (bare, live oysters, or dead oysters) in determining the spatial distribution of new (<1 mm) S. glomerata recruits and (2) the contribution of settlement and postsettlement processes in setting patterns of spatial variation in established oyster populations. Patches of habitat with either live oysters, dead oysters, or no conspecifics were established at 3 tidal elevations at each site, and natural settlement and postsettlement mortality were monitored through time. At each site, and regardless of the substrate provided, we detected a similar pattern of fewer new S. glomerata recruits and greater postsettlement mortality on the high intertidal shore rather than the mid or low intertidal shore. Substrate type, by contrast, influenced the abundance of new recruits, but not subsequent postsettlement mortality. Consequently, over a period of months, direct effects of tidal elevation rather than effects of substrate type determined spatial patterns of oyster recruitment on the rocky shore and in the mangrove. Consequently, we documented that on a rocky shore and in a mangrove forest, settlement and early postsettlement mortality vary similarly across tidal elevation gradients and substrate types to determine the distribution of S. glomerata. Copyright © 2013 BioOne.

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