Ecosystems Research Division
Ecosystems Research Division
Cerucci M.,Omni Environmental LLC MCHydro Consultoria Ambiental LTDA |
Jaligama G.K.,Omni Environmental LLC |
Ambrose Jr. R.B.,Ecosystems Research Division
Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010
The Monod method is widely used to model nutrient limitation and primary productivity in water bodies. It offers a straightforward approach to simulate the main processes governing eutrophication and it allows the proper representation of many aquatic systems. The Monod method is not able to represent the nutrient luxury uptake by algae, which consists of the excess nutrient uptake during times of high nutrient availability in the water column. The Droop method, which is also used to model nutrient limitation and primary productivity, takes into account the luxury uptake of nutrients. Because of the relative complexity of the Droop method, it has not been systematically adopted for the simulation of large stream networks. The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) version 7.1 was updated to include nutrient luxury uptake for periphyton growth. The objective of this paper is to present the new nutrient limitation processes simulated by WASP 7.1 and to compare the performance of the Droop and the Monod methods for a complex stream network where periphyton is the main organism responsible for primary productivity. Two applications of WASP 7.1 with the Droop and Monod methods were developed for the Raritan River Basin in New Jersey. Water quality parameters affecting the transport and fate of nutrients were calibrated based on observed data collected for the Raritan River total maximum daily load. The dissolved oxygen and nutrients simulated with WASP 7.1, obtained with the Droop and Monod methods, were compared at selected monitoring stations under different flows and nutrient availability conditions. The comparison of the WASP 7.1 applications showed the importance of using the Droop method when periphyton was the main organism responsible for primary productivity. The data simulated with the Droop method resulted in good agreement with the observed data for dissolved oxygen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, and dissolved orthophosphate at the selected stations. The Monod method was not able to capture the diel dissolved oxygen variation when nutrients were scarce, and it resulted in unrealistic diel variations of nutrients at times of strong primary productivity at some locations. © 2010 ASCE.
de Graff J.V.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Sidle R.C.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Ahmad R.,University of the West Indies |
Scatena F.N.,University of Pennsylvania
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012
Worldwide concern for continuing loss of montane forest cover in the tropics usually focuses on adverse ecological consequences. Less recognized, but equally important to inhabitants of these affected regions, is an increasing susceptibility to rainfall-induced debris flows and their associated impacts. The same high rainfall rates that sustain tropical forest cover can often serve as the triggering mechanism for debris flows. The natural rate of debris flow occurrence on steep slopes subject to episodic, intense rainfall is dependent on the stabilizing effect of tropical forests. Either loss or significant reduction in forest cover can weaken this natural defense. Information from postdisaster observations and research on the November 1988 storm event in southern Thailand provides a case study illustrating the potential impacts of increased debris flow susceptibility resulting from conversion of forest cover to rubber tree crops. Development resulting in the loss of tropical forest cover may be accompanied by local increase in population, property development, and infrastructure. Consequently, the potentially disastrous consequences of increased debris flow occurrence are amplified by the greater vulnerability of local populations. Preserving the tropical forest cover is an obvious and often difficult means of retaining this natural protection. Effective policy should capitalize on the values of tropical forests as part of the strategy for retaining adequate forest cover. Policy should also seek to avoid creating pressures that foster forest removal or their conversion to other types of land cover in steep terrain. Areas where tropical forests were converted to other cover types can be restored to secondary forests to avoid a permanent state of increased debris flow susceptibility. Restoration of secondary tropical forests can successfully re-establish the forest characteristics that limit debris flow occurrence. Experience in Central America and the Caribbean demonstrates that successful restoration is possible but requires a significant commitment of both time and resources. In addition to the cost and technical difficulties involved, the increased susceptibility to debris flow occurrence persists through many years until successful restoration is achieved. Both retention of existing tropical forests and restoration of forest cover where loss has occurred are often justified by the reduced risk of debris flow impacts to vulnerable populations and infrastructure. © 2012 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).
Golden H.E.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Boyer E.W.,Pennsylvania State University |
Brown M.G.,Cornell University |
Elliott E.M.,University of Pittsburgh |
Lee D.K.,Seoul National University
Water Resources Research | Year: 2010
Assessing the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts of total N deposition (wet, dry, and cloud vapor); however, dry deposition is difficult to measure and is often spatially variable. Affordable passive sampling methods are available for estimating "hot spots" and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH 3)), though few viable methods for estimating the deposition from nitric acid (HNO3) gas using passive sampling techniques exist. We consider passive sampling approaches for assessing spatial patterns of dry atmospheric N deposition across watersheds. We describe a method for constructing an inexpensive passive sampler (for less than $12 per unit) for monitoring spatial variations in the magnitude of HNO3 in the atmosphere. We demonstrate the applicability of passive samplers for use in watershed biogeochemical research and water quality management through a review of previous applications and via our own case study of the South Korean peninsula. © Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Martinovic-Weigelt D.,Thomas University |
Ekman D.R.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Villeneuve D.L.,US Ecology |
James C.M.,Thomas University |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Chemical structures of several urinary reproductive pheromones in fish have been identified, and their role in the chemical communication of reproductive condition is well characterized. On the contrary, the role of chemical communication in signalling of social/territorial status in fish is poorly understood. Fathead minnows are an example of a fish species whose life history traits appear conducive to evolution of chemical communication systems that confer information about social/territorial status. Male reproduction in this species is dependent upon their ability to acquire and defend a high quality nesting territory, and to attract a female to the nest. We hypothesized that fathead minnow males use visual and urine-derived chemical cues to signal territorial status. To test this hypothesis, effects of territorial acquisition on male-specific secondary sex characteristics (SSCs) and urine volumes were first assessed. Second, frequencies of male urination in varying social contexts were examined. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to identify urinary metabolites that were differentially excreted in the urine of territorial versus non-territorial males. The expression of SSCs, sperm, and urine volumes increased with territory acquisition, and either remained unchanged or decreased in non-territorial males. Frequency of male urination increased significantly in the presence of females (but not males), suggesting that females are the main target of the urinary signals. Territorial and non-territorial males had distinct urinary metabolomic profiles. An unforeseen finding was that one could discern future territorial status of males, based on their initial metabolomic profiles. Bile acids and volatile amines were identified as potential chemical signals of social status in the fathead minnow. The finding that trimethylamine (a fishy smelling volatile amine) may be a social cue is particularly interesting, because it is known to bind trace amine-associated receptors, indicating that these receptors may play role in chemical signalling of social status in fish.
Price K.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Purucker S.T.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Kraemer S.R.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Babendreier J.E.,Ecosystems Research Division
Water Resources Research | Year: 2012
Hydrologic models are commonly calibrated by optimizing a single objective function target to compare simulated and observed flows, although individual targets are influenced by specific flow modes. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) emphasizes flood peaks in evaluating simulation fit, while modified Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (MNS) emphasizes lower flows, and the ratio of the simulated to observed standard deviations (RSD) prioritizes flow variability. We investigated tradeoffs of calibrating streamflow on three standard objective functions (NSE, MNS, and RSD), as well as a multiobjective function aggregating these three targets to simultaneously address a range of flow conditions, for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) daily streamflow simulations in two watersheds. A suite of objective functions was explored to select a minimally redundant set of metrics addressing a range of flow characteristics. After each pass of 2001 simulations, an iterative informal likelihood procedure was used to subset parameter ranges. The ranges from each best-fit simulation set were used for model validation. Values for optimized parameters vary among calibrations using different objective functions, which underscores the importance of linking modeling objectives to calibration target selection. The simulation set approach yielded validated models of similar quality as seen with a single best-fit parameter set, with the added benefit of uncertainty estimations. Our approach represents a novel compromise between equifinality-based approaches and Pareto optimization. Combining the simulation set approach with the multiobjective function was demonstrated to be a practicable and flexible approach for model calibration, which can be readily modified to suit modeling goals, and is not model or location specific. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Golden H.E.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Knightes C.D.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Cooter E.J.,National Exposure Research Laboratory |
Dennis R.L.,National Exposure Research Laboratory |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2010
Directly linking air quality and watershed models could provide an effective method for estimating spatially-explicit inputs of atmospheric contaminants to watershed biogeochemical models. However, to adequately link air and watershed models for wet deposition estimates, each model's temporal and spatial representation of precipitation needs to be consistent. We explore how precipitation implemented within the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) model algorithms, and multiple spatially-explicit precipitation datasets that could be used to improve the CMAQ model deposition estimates, links with the standard precipitation sources used to calibrate watershed models (i.e., rain gage data) via modeled water fluxes. Simulations are run using a grid-based watershed mercury model (GBMM) in two watersheds. Modeled monthly runoff suggests that multiple resolution Parameter-elevations Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) and National Multi-sensor Precipitation Analysis Stage IV (NPA) data generate similar monthly runoff estimates, with comparable or greater accuracy when evaluated against stream gage data than that produced by the base rain gage data. However, across longer time periods, simulated water balances using 36 km Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model (MM5) data are similar to that of base data. The investigation also examines the implications our results, providing suggestions for linking air quality and watershed fate and transport models. © 2010.
Ekman D.R.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Hartig P.C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Cardon M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Skelton D.M.,Ecosystems Research Division |
And 8 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012
Widespread environmental contamination by bisphenol A (BPA) has created the need to fully define its potential toxic mechanisms of action (MOA) to properly assess human health and ecological risks from exposure. Although long recognized as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, some data suggest that BPA may also behave as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. However, direct evidence of this activity is deficient. To address this knowledge gap, we employed a metabolomic approach using in vivo exposures of fathead minnows (FHM; Pimephales promelas) to BPA either alone or in a binary mixture with 17β-trenbolone (TB), a strong AR agonist. Changes in liver metabolite profiles in female FHM in response to these exposures were determined using high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate and univariate statistics. Using this approach, we observed clear evidence of the ability of BPA to mitigate the impact of TB, consistent with an antiandrogenic MOA. In addition, a transcriptional activation assay with the FHM AR was used to confirm the AR antagonistic activity of BPA in vitro. The results of these in vivo and in vitro analyses provide strong and direct evidence for ascribing an antiandrogenic MOA to BPA in vertebrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Tryby M.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Purucker S.T.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Whelan G.,Ecosystems Research Division
Modelling for Environment's Sake: Proceedings of the 5th Biennial Conference of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, iEMSs 2010 | Year: 2010
The US EPA's regulatory framework for recreational waters has protected public health for decades. Pathogenic contamination of these waters, however, remains a frequent cause of impairment. Integrated modeling is being leveraged to advance the agency's understanding of pathogen fate and transport processes in watersheds and improve its ability to predict the consequences of exposure. This paper describes integrated modeling research focusing on source characterization techniques for pathogen transport scenarios in watersheds. Source characterization is a hidden requirement of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, a method for estimating infection risks being evaluated across several programs within the EPA. A hybrid source characterization approach is described and demonstrated that utilizes integrated and inverse modeling methodologies to determine pathogen source allocations.
Mills L.J.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Henderson W.M.,Ecosystems Research Division |
Jayaraman S.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
Gutjahr-Gobell R.E.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency |
And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2015
Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical (EAP) that is used world-wide. Because tamoxifen is a ubiquitous pharmaceutical and interacts with estrogen receptors, a case study was conducted with this compound to (1) determine effects on reproductive endpoints in a nontarget species (i.e., a fish), (2) compare biologically-active metabolites across species, (3) assess whether in vitro assays predict in vivo results, and (4) investigate metabolomic profiles in tamoxifen-treated fish to better understand the biological mechanisms of tamoxifen toxicity. In reproductive assays, tamoxifen exposure caused a significant reduction in egg production and significantly increased ovarian aromatase activity in spawning adult cunner fish (Tautogolabrus adspersus). In plasma from tamoxifen-exposed cunner, the predominant metabolite was 4-hydroxytamoxifen, while in rats it was N-desmethyltamoxifen. Because 4-hydroxytamoxifen is a more biologically active metabolite than N-desmethyltamoxifen, this difference could result in a different level of risk for the two species. The results of in vitro assays with fish hepatic microsomes to assess tamoxifen metabolism did not match in vivo results, indicating probable differences in excretion of tamoxifen metabolites in fish compared with rats. For the first time, a complete in vitro characterization of the metabolism of tamoxifen using fish microsomes is presented. Furthermore, a metabolomic investigation of cunner gonad extracts demonstrates that tamoxifen alters the biochemical profile in this nontarget species. Understanding the consequence of tamoxifen exposure in nontarget species, and assessing the discrepancies between sex- and species-mediated endpoints, is a step toward understanding how to accurately assess the risks posed by EAPs, such as tamoxifen, in the aquatic environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL and Ecosystems Research Division
Type: | Journal: Environmental toxicology | Year: 2015
Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical (EAP) that is used world-wide. Because tamoxifen is a ubiquitous pharmaceutical and interacts with estrogen receptors, a case study was conducted with this compound to (1) determine effects on reproductive endpoints in a nontarget species (i.e., a fish), (2) compare biologically-active metabolites across species, (3) assess whether in vitro assays predict in vivo results, and (4) investigate metabolomic profiles in tamoxifen-treated fish to better understand the biological mechanisms of tamoxifen toxicity. In reproductive assays, tamoxifen exposure caused a significant reduction in egg production and significantly increased ovarian aromatase activity in spawning adult cunner fish (Tautogolabrus adspersus). In plasma from tamoxifen-exposed cunner, the predominant metabolite was 4-hydroxytamoxifen, while in rats it was N-desmethyltamoxifen. Because 4-hydroxytamoxifen is a more biologically active metabolite than N-desmethyltamoxifen, this difference could result in a different level of risk for the two species. The results of in vitro assays with fish hepatic microsomes to assess tamoxifen metabolism did not match in vivo results, indicating probable differences in excretion of tamoxifen metabolites in fish compared with rats. For the first time, a complete in vitro characterization of the metabolism of tamoxifen using fish microsomes is presented. Furthermore, a metabolomic investigation of cunner gonad extracts demonstrates that tamoxifen alters the biochemical profile in this nontarget species. Understanding the consequence of tamoxifen exposure in nontarget species, and assessing the discrepancies between sex- and species-mediated endpoints, is a step toward understanding how to accurately assess the risks posed by EAPs, such as tamoxifen, in the aquatic environment. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.