Chiapa de Corzo, Mexico
Chiapa de Corzo, Mexico
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Jourdie V.,University of Neuchatel | Jourdie V.,University of Manchester | Alvarez N.,University of Neuchatel | Molina-Ochoa J.,University of Colima | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Plant chemistry can strongly influence interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies, either by providing volatile compounds that serve as foraging cues for parasitoids or predators, or by affecting the quality of herbivores as hosts or prey. Through these effects plants may influence parasitoid population genetic structure. We tested for a possible specialization on specific crop plants in Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis, two primary parasitoids of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Throughout Mexico, S. frugiperda larvae were collected from their main host plants, maize and sorghum and parasitoids that emerged from the larvae were used for subsequent comparison by molecular analysis. Genetic variation at eight and 11 microsatellites were respectively assayed for C. insularis and C. sonorensis to examine isolation by distance, host plant and regional effects. Kinship analyses were also performed to assess female migration among host-plants. The analyses showed considerable within population variation and revealed a significant regional effect. No effect of host plant on population structure of either of the two parasitoid species was found. Isolation by distance was observed at the individual level, but not at the population level. Kinship analyses revealed significantly more genetically related - or kin - individuals on the same plant species than on different plant species, suggesting that locally, mothers preferentially stay on the same plant species. Although the standard population genetics parameters showed no effect of plant species on population structure, the kinship analyses revealed that mothers exhibit plant species fidelity, which may speed up divergence if adaptation were to occur. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Marina C.F.,Centro Regional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | Bond J.G.,Centro Regional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | Casas M.,Centro Regional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | Munoz J.,Centro Regional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | And 3 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Background: Field trials were conducted during the wet and dry seasons in periurban and semi-rural cemeteries in southern Mexico to determine the efficacy of a suspension concentrate formulation of spinosad (Tracer 480SC) on the inhibition of development of Aedes albopictus L. and Ae. aegypti Skuse. For this, oviposition traps were treated with spinosad (1 or 5 mg L-1), Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti, VectoBac 12AS), a sustained release formulation of temephos and a water control. Results: Ae. albopictus was subordinate to Ae. aegypti during the dry season, but became dominant or codominant during the wet season at both sites. The two species could not be differentiated in field counts on oviposition traps. Mean numbers of larvae + pupae of Aedes spp. in Bti-treated containers were similar to the control at both sites during both seasons. The duration of complete absence of aquatic stages varied from 5 to 13 weeks for the spinosad treatments and from 6 to 9 weeks for the temephos treatment, depending on site, season and product concentration. Predatory Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar and Knab suffered low mortality in control and Bti treatments, but high mortality in spinosad and temephos treatments. Egg counts and percentage of egg hatch of Aedes spp. increased significantly between the dry and wet seasons, but significant treatment differences were not detected. Conclusion: Temephos granules and a suspension concentrate formulation of spinosad were both highly effective larvicides against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. These compounds merit detailed evaluation for inclusion in integrated control programs targeted at Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in regions where they represent important vectors of human diseases. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

Salazar-Vallejo S.I.,ECOSUR | Buzhinskaja G.,Russian Academy of Sciences
ZooKeys | Year: 2011

Diplocirrus Haase, 1915, includes flabelligerids having cylindrical to club-shaped bodies, with cirriform papillae, multiarticulate chaetae in both parapodial rami, 8 branchial filaments of two types (thick and rarely lamellate, or cirriform), gonopodial lobes in chaetigers 5 or 6, or multiple gonopores along some anterior chaetigers. Bradiella Rullier, 1965, has included only the type species: B. branchiata Rullier, 1965, described from Eastern Australia. The original description has been overlooked and it lacked enough details on branchial and chaetal features. Diversibranchius Buzhinskaja, 1993, with D. nicolaji Buzhinskaja, 1994, as the type species, was introduced for a similar species from the Japan Sea. These two monotypic genera share the same morphologic features with Diplocirrus, and are herein regarded as its junior synonyms. As herein redefined, Diplocirrus includes, besides its type species, D. glaucus (Malmgren, 1867) from Scandinavia: D. branchiatus (Rullier, 1965), comb. n. from Queensland, Australia, D. capensis Day, 1961 from South Africa, D. erythroporus Gallardo, 1968 from Vietnam, D. hirsutus (Hansen, 1882) from Arctic and subarctic regions, D. incognitus Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from South Africa, D. kudenovi sp. n. from off Western Mexico, D. longisetosus (von Marenzeller, 1890) restricted to the Bering Sea, D. micans Fauchald, 1972 from deep water off Oregon and Western Mexico, D. nicolaji (Buzhinskaja, 1994), comb. n. from the Japan Sea, D. normani (McIntosh, 1908), comb. n. from Scandinavia, D. octobranchus (Hartman, 1965), comb. n. from off New England, and D. stopbowitzi Darbyshire & Mackie, 2009 from the Irish Sea. © Sergio I. Salazar-Vallejo, Galina Buzhinskaja.

Brown J.D.,University of Georgia | Luttrell M.P.,University of Georgia | Uhart M.M.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Del Valle Ferreyra H.,Wildlife Conservation Society | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

Limited information exists on avian influenza (AI) virus infection in South American wild birds. As part of a national surveillance program in Argentina, indigenous waterbirds were screened for antibodies to AI virus. From November 2006 to July 2007, serum samples from 540 waterbirds of 12 species were tested for type-specific antibodies to AI virus with the use of a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and the agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Thirty-three percent (176/540) of serum samples were positive with the bELISA and 12% (64/540) were positive with the AGID test. The bELISA detected antibodies to AI virus in eight of the 12 species, and the AGID detected positives in only five species. These results provide insight into AI virus circulation in Argentinean waterbirds and preliminary data to guide further surveillance efforts. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010.

De La Mora A.,ECOSUR | Philpott S.M.,University of Toledo
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2010

Agricultural intensification is linked to reduced species richness and may limit the effectiveness of predators in agricultural systems. We studied the abundance, diversity, and species composition of wood-nesting ants and frequency of parasitism of poneromorph ants in coffee agroecosystems and a forest fragment in Chiapas, Mexico. In three farms differing in shade management and in a nearby forest fragment, we surveyed ants nesting in rotten wood. We collected pupae of all poneromorph ants encountered, and incubated pupae for 15 d to recover emerging ant parasites. If no parasites emerged, we dissected pupae to examine for parasitism. Overall, we found 63 ant morphospecies, 29 genera, and 7 subfamilies from 520 colonies. There were no significant differences in ant richness or abundance between the different sites. However, there were significant differences in the species composition of ants sampled in the four different sites. The parasitism rates of ants differed according to site; in the forest 77.7% of species were parasitized, and this number declined with increasing intensification in traditional polyculture (40%), commercial polyculture (25%), and shade monoculture (16.6%). For three of four poneromorph species found in >1 habitat, parasitism rates were higher in the more vegetatively complex sites. The result that both ant species composition and ant parasitism differed among by site indicates that coffee management intensification affects wood-nesting ant communities. Further, coffee intensification may significantly alter interactions between ants and their parasites, with possible implications for biological control in coffee agroecosystems. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

Karhan S.U.,Istanbul University | Simboura N.,Hellenic Center for Marine Research | Salazar-Vallejo S.I.,ECOSUR
Mediterranean Marine Science | Year: 2012

A new species of flabelligerid polychaete, Flabelliderma cinari, is described from the Turkish coast of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. This represents the first occurrence of the genus Flabelliderma in the Mediterranean. Flabelliderma cinari sp. nov. is closely allied to F. claparedei in having dorsal tubercles of two different sizes; however, these species differ in the relative shape and number of dorsal tubercles, the number of capillaries per fascicle in the notopodia and the shape of the curved distal articles in the neuropodial hooks.

Marina C.F.,Centro Regional Of Investigacian En Salud Publica Insp | Bond J.G.,Centro Regional Of Investigacian En Salud Publica Insp | Muoz J.,Centro Regional Of Investigacian En Salud Publica Insp | Valle J.,ECOSUR | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results: Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter) provided 68 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion: The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes. © 2012 Marina et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sanchez A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Ortiz-Hernandez M.C.,ECOSUR | Talavera-Saenz A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Aguiniga-Garcia S.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2013

Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the δ15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun) and decreased toward Bahia Akumal and Tulum. The δ15N from T.testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the δ15N values were relatively enriched compared to Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore, Puerto Morelos and Mahahual may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring where tourist activities are growing and can lead to environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

de la Mora A.,ECOSUR | Murnen C.J.,University of Toledo | Philpott S.M.,University of Toledo | Philpott S.M.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2013

Agriculture of varying management intensity dominates fragmented tropical areas and differentially impacts organisms across and within taxa. We examined impacts of local and landscape characteristics on four groups of ants in an agricultural landscape in Chiapas, Mexico comprised of forest fragments and coffee agroecosystems varying in habitat quality. We sampled ground ants found in leaf litter and rotten logs and arboreal ants found in hollow coffee twigs and on tree trunks. Then using vegetation and agrochemical indices and conditional inference trees, we examined the relative importance of local (e. g. vegetation, elevation, agrochemical) and landscape variables (e. g. distance to and amount of nearby forest and rustic coffee) for predicting richness and abundance of ants. Leaf litter ant abundance increased with vegetation complexity; richness and abundance of ants from rotten logs, twig-nests, and tree trunks were not affected by vegetation complexity. Agrochemical use did not affect species richness or abundance of any ant group. Several local factors (including humus mass, degree of decay of logs, number of hollow twigs, tree circumference, and absence of fertilizers) were significant positive predictors of abundance and richness of some ant groups. Two landscape factors (forest within 200 m, and distance from forest) predicted richness and abundance of twig-nesting and leaf litter ants. Thus, different ant groups were influenced by different characteristics of agricultural landscapes, but all responded primarily to local characteristics. Given that ants provide ecosystem services (e. g. pest control) in coffee farms, understanding ant responses to local and landscape characteristics will likely inform farm management decisions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Marina C.F.,Centro Regional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | Bond J.G.,Centro Regional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | Munoz J.,Centro Regional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica | Valle J.,ECOSUR | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: The larvicidal efficacy of the naturally derived insecticide spinosad, for control of immature stages of Anopheles albimanus and associated culicids, was compared to that of synthetic and biological larvicides. Effects on non-target insects were also determined. Methods. A field trial was performed in replicated temporary pools during the rainy season, in southern Mexico. Pools were treated with 10 ppm a.i. spinosad (Tracer 480SC), Bti granules applied at 2 kg/ha (VectoBac WDG, ABG-6511), and 100 ml/ha temephos (50 EC), or an untreated control. Numbers of immature mosquitoes, and aquatic insects in pools were monitored for 20 weeks. Results: Samples of immature mosquitoes comprised approximately 10% An. albimanus, 70% Culex spp. (mostly Cx. melanoconion and Cx. coronator) and 20% Uranotaenia lowii. The most effective larvicides were spinosad and temephos that eliminated An. albimanus in 16 out of 20 post-treatment samples, or 9 weeks of continuous control of immature stages, respectively. These larvicides resulted in 15 and 5 weeks of elimination of Culex spp., respectively, or 20 and 4 weeks of continuous elimination of U. lowii, respectively. Bti treatment provided little consistent control. Aquatic insects were recorded comprising 3 orders, 20 families, 40 genera and 44 species. Shannon diversity index values (H') for aquatic insects were highest in the control (0.997) and Bti (0.974) treatments, intermediate in the spinosad treatment (0.638) and lowest in the temephos treatment (0.520). Severely affected non-target insects in the spinosad and temephos treated pools were predatory Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata, which in the case of spinosad was likely due to the high concentration applied. Bti had little effect on aquatic insects. Conclusions: The spinosad treatment retained larvicidal activity for markedly longer than expected. Spinosad is likely to be an effective tool for control of anopheline and other pool-breeding mosquitoes in tropical regions. Non-target effects of spinosad on aquatic insects merit further study, but were likely related to the concentration of the product used. © 2014 Marina et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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