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Wang K.,University at Albany | Groom M.,ECOspray Ltd | Sheridan R.,Food Laboratory Division | Zhang S.,University at Albany | Block E.,University at Albany
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry | Year: 2013

Diallyl disulfide reacts within minutes with liquid sulfur at 120°C giving a family of diallyl polysulfanes, All2S n (n=3-22), characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-(Ag+)-coordination ion spray-mass spectrometry (UPLC-(Ag+)CIS-MS). Similarly, garlic oil (GO), bis-(2-methyl-2-propenyl), bis-(2-chloro-2-propenyl), bis-(3-methyl-2- butenyl), and bis-(2-cyclohexen-1-yl) disulfides all give families of polysulfanes with up to 22 sequential sulfur atoms. New members of families of silver chelators with up to 10 sulfur atoms were found in GO using UPLC-(Ag +)CIS-MS. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.© 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Sharma S.V.,University of East Anglia | Arbach M.,University of East Anglia | Arbach M.,ECOspray Ltd | Roberts A.A.,University of East Anglia | And 3 more authors.
ChemBioChem | Year: 2013

Bacillithiol (BSH) is the major low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiol in many low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes). Evidence now emerging suggests that BSH functions as an important LMW thiol in redox regulation and xenobiotic detoxification, analogous to what is already known for glutathione and mycothiol in other microorganisms. The biophysical properties and cellular concentrations of such LMW thiols are important determinants of their biochemical efficiency both as biochemical nucleophiles and as redox buffers. Here, BSH has been characterised and compared with other LMW thiols in terms of its thiol pKa, redox potential and thiol-disulfide exchange reactivity. Both the thiol pKa and the standard thiol redox potential of BSH are shown to be significantly lower than those of glutathione whereas the reactivities of the two compounds in thiol-disulfide reactions are comparable. The cellular concentration of BSH in Bacillus subtilis varied over different growth phases and reached up to 5 mM, which is significantly greater than previously observed from single measurements taken during mid-exponential growth. These results demonstrate that the biophysical characteristics of BSH are distinctively different from those of GSH and that its cellular concentrations can reach levels much higher than previously reported.© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 253.78K | Year: 2015

THE PROBLEM: Two key issues surround nematode pest control in potato crops:- (1) Increasingly restrictive regulation of chemical nematicides. (2) Their current application in granulate form, makes their climate-dependent active release in localised subsoils difficult to control. THE SOLUTION: ECOspray has developed natural (garlic oil) polysulfides as environmentally benign nematicides. Target Set Technology Ltd have engineered a unique soil side ridge injection (SRI) technology able to deliver such liquid nematicides. UEA has methods to analyse polysulfides in complex soil samples. OBJECTIVES: (i) Optimise SRI technology for the localised sub-soil delivery of liquid polysulfide nematicides into side ridges at the time of planting and beyond; (ii) validate this with a substantial body of field trials data; (iii) use this data to support applications for regulatory approval. INNOVATION Technology offering localised & temporal control of nematicide delivery in the soil


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 2.79M | Year: 2008

Intracellular redox processes are pivotal for cell survival and proliferation. Redox active natural products, enzymes and their mimics may therefore be considered as regulators of various cellular processes which may, for instance, control inflammatory processes, cancer formation and proliferation, but also bacterial, fungal and microbial growth. It is now apparent that redox control exerted by such natural and synthetic products may be used for prevention and therapy in Medicine and for the development of green pesticides in Agriculture. This training network will study chemical, biochemical and biological aspects of the modulation of cellular redox balances by selected natural agents and their mimics. It relies on expertise of 10 full and 7 associated partners (1 SME) in a range of scientific disciplines, including synthetic, analytical, biological and pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology, microbiology, cancer research and agricultural research. The network will address 4 36-month work packages (WP): A WP on natural antioxidants, inflammation and cancer; a WP studying intracellular redox control and signalling events triggered by external redox agents; a WP on green antibiotics and pesticides from plants and fungi; a WP on redox catalysts as agents selective against cancer and inflammatory cells. The network will provide interdisciplinary training for 4 experienced and 10 early stage researchers, all of which will acquire expertise in 3 or more of scientific disciplines. Each researcher will develop a training portfolio when joining the network. All early stage researchers are expected to obtain international recognised PhD degrees. In addition to intensive scientific training at various host institutes, there will be a framework programme offering training in science related matters and soft skills, such as logical and ethical aspects of research, IP, patenting and commercialisation, communication skills and cultural and gender issues.


Marut W.,University of Paris Descartes | Jamier V.,University of Paris Descartes | Jamier V.,Saarland University | Kavian N.,University of Paris Descartes | And 9 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: The aim of this study was to test the naturally occurring organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide (DPTTS), found in plants, which has antibiotic and anticancer properties, as a treatment for HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse. Methods: The prooxidative, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects of DPTTS were evaluated ex vivo on fibroblasts from normal and HOCl mice. In vivo, the antifibrotic and immunomodulating properties of DPTTS were evaluated in the skin and lungs of HOCl mice. Results: H2O2 production was higher in fibroblasts derived from HOCl mice than in normal fibroblasts (P < 0.05). DPTTS did not increase H2O2 production in normal fibroblasts, but DPTTS dose-dependently increased H2O2 production in HOCl fibroblasts (P < 0.001 with 40 μM DPTTS). Because H2O2 reached a lethal threshold in cells from HOCl mice, the antiproliferative, cytotoxic, and proapoptotic effects of DPTTS were significantly higher in HOCl fibroblasts than for normal fibroblasts. In vivo, DPTTS decreased dermal thickness (P < 0.001), collagen content in skin (P < 0.01) and lungs (P < 0.05), αSMA (P < 0.01) and pSMAD2/3 (P < 0.01) expression in skin, formation of advanced oxidation protein products and anti-DNA topoisomerase-1 antibodies in serum (P < 0.05) versus untreated HOCl mice. Moreover, in HOCl mice, DPTTS reduced splenic B-cell counts (P < 0.01), the proliferative rates of B-splenocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (P < 0.05), and T-splenocytes stimulated by anti-CD3/CD28 mAb (P < 0.001). Ex vivo, it also reduced the production of IL-4 and IL-13 by activated T cells (P < 0.05 in both cases).Conclusions: The natural organosulfur compound DPTTS prevents skin and lung fibrosis in the mouse through the selective killing of diseased fibroblasts and its immunomodulating properties. DPTTS may be a potential treatment for systemic sclerosis. © 2013 Marut et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Gruhlke M.C.H.,RWTH Aachen | Portz D.,RWTH Aachen | Portz D.,Bayer AG | Stitz M.,RWTH Aachen | And 6 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010

The volatile substance allicin gives crushed garlic (Allium sativum) its characteristic odor and is a pro-oxidant that undergoes thiol-disulfide exchange reactions with -SH groups in proteins and glutathione. The antimicrobial activity of allicin is suspected to be due to the oxidative inactivation of essential thiol-containing enzymes. We investigated the hypothesis that at threshold inhibitory levels allicin can shunt yeast cells into apoptosis by altering their overall redox status. Yeast cells were treated either with chemically synthesized, pure allicin or with allicin in garlic juice. Allicin-dependent cell oxidation was demonstrated with a redox-sensitive GFP construct and the shift in cellular electrochemical potential (Ehc) from less than - 215 to - 181 mV was calculated using the Nernst equation after the glutathione/glutathione disulfide couple (2GSH/GSSG) in the cell was quantified. Caspase activation occurred after allicin treatment, and yeast expressing a human antiapoptotic Bcl-XL construct was rendered more resistant to allicin. Also, a yeast apoptosis-inducing factor deletion mutant was more resistant to allicin than wild-type cells. We conclude that allicin in garlic juice can activate apoptosis in yeast cells through its oxidizing properties and that this presents an alternative cell-killing mechanism to the previously proposed specific oxidative inactivation of essential enzymes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Anglia and Ecospray Ltd
Type: Review | Journal: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2017

Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from

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