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Paluch G.,EcoSMART Technologies Inc. | Bradbury R.,EcoSafe Natural Products Inc. | Bessette S.,EcoSMART Technologies Inc.
Journal of ASTM International | Year: 2011

Pesticide science is faced with a growing demand for green or sustainable pesticide chemistries that offer reduced risks to human health and the environment. Efforts are placed on the development f new pesticides containing novel active ingredients and/or formulations from natural sources. These products continue to drive innovation and have been proven to present effective alternatives to conventional pesticides. The use of botanical extracts for management of arthropods can be traced back through centuries, and their biological properties continue to be explored in the scientific literature. Many of the terpenoid compounds contained in plant essential oil extracts are capable of eliciting strong inhibitory effects against arthropods in laboratory settings; however, effective delivery can pose many challenges in the formulation process including selection of active ingredients, emulsifiers, spreaders, and other necessary components. Recent data demonstrates that select botanical terpenes/plant essential oils can control public health pests under field and laboratory settings, but current products may not necessarily encompass the full potential of their active ingredients. Further research continues to improve on botanical formulations and offer new approaches, such as microencapsulation, for use in product development. These findings highlight improvements in the formulation of plant essential oil active ingredients, and provide support for using botanicals to control public health pests. Copyright © 2011.

Akhtar Y.,University of British Columbia | Pages E.,ENS | Stevens A.,University of British Columbia | Bradbury R.,EcoSafe Natural Products Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Physiological Entomology | Year: 2012

The relationship between chemical composition and feeding deterrent activity of seven essential oils is explored, including those from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Lavendula latifolia (L.) Medicus, Lavendula angustifolia L., Mentha crispa L., Mentha arvensis L. and Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae) against an important agricultural pest, the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner, Noctuidae), using a leaf-disc choice bioassay. Comparison of the deterrent activity of 'full mixtures' with respective artificial blends missing individual constituents demonstrates that, for most oils, minor constituents in a mixture can be as important as major constituents with respect to the overall feeding deterrent effect. There is a lack of correlation between the feeding deterrent effect of an individual constituent of an essential oil and its contribution to the overall activity of the 'full mixture' in some cases. The effect of removing an individual constituent from the mixture of an essential oil depends on the unique properties of the mixture, which in turn may reflect the interaction of its constituents. Understanding the role and contribution of each constituent to the overall activity of the oil can facilitate the creation of artificial blends that optimize their efficacy against different pests. © 2012 The Authors. Physiological Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

Paluch G.,EcoSMART Technologies Inc. | Bessette S.,EcoSMART Technologies Inc. | Bradbury R.,EcoSafe Natural Products Inc.
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2011

The chemical ecology of plants provides a rich bank of structurally diverse compounds with a variety of insecticidal and repellent mechanisms. Further, the biological activity of select compounds offers potential for advances in pesticide chemistry with reduced risks to human health and the environment. Plant essential oil extracts represent the volatile essence of a plant, and are often comprised of a complex blend of terpenes and derivatives. Numerous studies have demonstrated that these compounds, as well as their parent blends, possess biological activity capable of eliciting adverse effects in arthropod pests. Recent patent literature has revealed novel research findings describing new arthropod repellent technologies and delivery applications; however, commercialization of essential oil-based products continues to lag behind. Factors affecting the commercialization of plant essential oil extracts as repellents, including regulatory requirements, intellectual property value, biological activity, product performance, and product quality, are discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Miresmailli S.,University of British Columbia | Bradbury R.,EcoSafe Natural Products Inc. | Isman M.B.,University of British Columbia
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2010

Qualitative performance of a portable gas chromatograph (zNose™) was assessed by comparing retention indices of major constituents of an essential oil-based insect repellent, and by comparing retention index of limonene, a major chemical in volatile blends of tomato plants, in the laboratory, a research greenhouse and a commercial greenhouse. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the performance of the device were also assessed. In all experiments, the zNose™ produced consistent results comparable to that of a conventional GC-MS. Our results concur with previous studies confirming the zNose™ as a suitable device for analyzing plant volatiles in the field and for monitoring their rapid changes. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Machial C.M.,Della Enterprises, Inc. | Shikano I.,Simon Fraser University | Smirle M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Bradbury R.,EcoSafe Natural Products Inc. | Isman M.B.,University of British Columbia
Pest Management Science | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Harris, and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Ḧ ubner, are serious fruit and vegetable pests requiring multiple insecticide applications per year. To reduce non-target exposure to hazardous insecticides and to curb resistance development, alternative controls are required. Accordingly, a selection of 17 essential oils was screened against both lepidopteran pests, and the influence of azinphos-methyl resistance on essential oil toxicity to C. rosaceana was studied. RESULTS: Of the 17 essential oils screened, patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) and thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris L.) were selected for further testing against C. rosaceana, whereas patchouli oil, garlic oil (Allium sativum L.) and lemongrass oil (Cymopogon nardus L.) were selected for further testing against T. ni. LC50 and LD50 values confirmed that patchouli oil was the most toxic to C. rosaceana larvae, with LC50 = 2.8 μLmL-1 and LD50 = 8.0 μg insect-1. Garlic oil was the most toxic oil to T. ni larvae with LC50 = 3.3 μLmL-1 and LD50 = 22.7 μg insect-1, followed by patchouli oil and lemongrass oil. Azinphos-methyl-resistant leafrollers were 1.5-fold more tolerant to patchouli oil and 2.0-foldmore tolerant to thyme oil. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, patchouli oil and other essential oils have sufficient efficacy to be considered as components of an essential oil-based insecticide that targets these lepidopteran pests. © 2010 Crown in the right of Canada.

Jiang Z.L.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Jiang Z.L.,University of British Columbia | Akhtar Y.,University of British Columbia | Zhang X.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2012

Ten essential oils were tested against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni larvae for contact, residual and fumigant toxicities and feeding deterrent effects. Against third instar T. ni, Syzygium aromaticum (LD50=47.8μg/larva), Thymus vulgaris (LD50=52.0μg/larva) (the two positive controls) and Cinnamomum glanduliferum (LD50=76.0μg/larva) were the most toxic via topical application. Litsea pungens (LD50=87.1μg/larva), Ilex purpurea (LD50=94.0μg/larva), Cinnamomum cassia (LD50=101.5μg/larva) and Litsea cubeba (LD50=112.4μg/larva) oils were equitoxic. Thymus vulgaris (LC50=4.8mg/ml) and S. aromaticum (LC50=6.0mg/ml) oils were the most toxic in residual bioassays. Cymbopogon citratus (LC50=7.7mg/ml) and C. cassia (LC50=8.5mg/ml) oils were equitoxic followed by Cymbopogon nardus (LC50=10.1mg/ml) in this bioassay. The remaining five oils showed little or no residual effects. In a fumigation bioassay, L. cubeba (LC50=16.5μl/l) and I. purpurea (LC50=22.2μl/l) oils were the most toxic. Cinnamomum glanduliferum (LC50=29.7μl/l) and Sabina vulgaris (LC50=31.2μl/l) oils were equitoxic. Interestingly, S. aromaticum did not exhibit any fumigant toxicity. Cymbopogon citratus, C. nardus and C. cassia strongly deterred feeding by third instar T. ni (DC50s=26.9, 33.8 and 39.6μg/cm2, respectively) in a leaf disc choice bioassay. The different responses of T. ni larvae to the oils in different bioassays suggest that these essential oils exhibit different modes of action. Based on their comparable efficacy with essential oils already used as active ingredients in many commercial insecticides (i.e. clove oil and thyme oil), some of these essential oils may have potential as botanical insecticides against T. ni. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH.

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