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Filipovic S.,Economics Institute | Verbic M.,University of Ljubljana | Radovanovic M.,Educons University
Energy | Year: 2015

The aim of this article is to analyse the energy intensity in EU-28 member states for the period 1990-2012, establish its determinants, and estimate the size and statistical significance of the effect of each determinant on energy intensity. In order to achieve this, a panel data approach was designed for EU-28 member states. The estimated model showed that energy prices, energy taxes and GDP (gross domestic product) per capita have a negative influence on energy intensity, while the growth of gross inland consumption and final energy consumption per capita positively affect energy intensity. The biggest impact on energy intensity was estimated for the price of electricity, indicating that the level and structure of this determinant should be considered and used as a valuable energy policy tool for improving energy efficiency. This policy conclusion is also supported by the fact that Denmark, Germany and Italy have the highest share of energy taxes in the structure of the final electricity price, and at the same time the lowest energy intensity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Janda K.,University of California at Berkeley | Janda K.,Charles University | Janda K.,University of Economics in Prague | Janda K.,Economics Institute | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural Economics (Czech Republic) | Year: 2012

This paper provides a general overview of the technological, social, environmental, economical, and policy considerations related to biofuels. While the biofuel production and consumption exhibited significant increase over the first decade of the new millennium, this and further increases in biofuel production are driven primarily by government policies. Currently available first generation biofuels are not economically viable in the absence of fiscal incentives or high oil prices (with a few exceptional cases, especially in the case of the most developed Brazilian sugarcane production of ethanol). Also the environmental impacts of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels are quite ambiguous. The literature review of the most recent economic models dealing with biofuels and their economic impacts provides a distinction between structural and reduced form models. The discussion of structural models centres primarily on computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The review of reduced models is structured toward the time series analysis approach to the dependencies between prices of biofuels, prices of agricultural commodities used for the biofuel production and prices of the fossil fuels.

Milosavljevic M.M.,Economics Institute | Sovrlic M.,Serbian Institute Kirilo Savic | Marinkovic A.D.,University of Belgrade
Monatshefte fur Chemie | Year: 2010

A novel synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl O-ethyl thiocarbamates from diethyl dixanthogenate and primary and secondary amines, using three oxidizing systems, has been developed on the laboratory scale, and the method using sodium hypochlorite has been applied on a semi-industrial scale. The effect of the oxidizing agents, sodium hypochlorite, in-situ-generated peracetic acid, and the manganese(II) acetate/oxygen system on product purity and yield was studied. The results obtained by use of these three methods were compared with those obtained by reaction of sodium ethyl xanthogenacetate and amines, and of sodium ethyl xanthate with amines in the presence of sulfated nickel zeolite catalyst. The reaction mechanism of sodium hypochlorite oxidation has been established on the basis of isolation of reaction intermediates and determination of their structure by use of Fourier-transform infrared, 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometric methods. The suggested sodium hypochlorite and manganese(II) acetate/oxygen systems have many advantages in comparison with commercial and catalytically promoted synthetic methods, because they are new ecologically friendly syntheses. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Cafiero C.,United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization | Bobenrieth E.S.A.H.,Economics Institute | Bobenrieth E.S.A.H.,University of Chile | Bobenrieth J.R.A.H.,University of Bío Bío | Wright B.D.,University of California at Berkeley
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2015

We present a Maximum Likelihood estimator for the standard commodity storage model with stockouts, based on prices only. While it imposes no additional assumptions on the model, the Maximum Likelihood estimator has small sample properties superior to those of the Pseudo Maximum Likelihood approach. We provide a proof that is crucial for applying our estimator to the model with normal harvests and possibly unbounded prices, thereby eliminating an inconsistency in the empirical storage model literature. Applying our Maximum Likelihood estimator to a series of annual sugar prices from 1921 to 2009 provides new evidence for the empirical relevance of the standard storage model. Our results imply a cutoff price at which discretionary stocks go to zero, which is higher than the price obtained by applying the Pseudo Maximum Likelihood estimator to the same data. The implied frequency of stockouts is lower, and price correlations, skewness, and kurtosis implied by the model closely match those seen in the annual sugar price data. We find the price of sugar to be highly responsive to small changes in consumption. When inventories are not available to buffer the effects of negative supply shocks on consumption, prices must increase sharply to induce the consumption changes needed to clear the market. Our results show why production shocks are not necessarily aligned with price spikes; the same production shock can give rise to very different price responses, depending on whether or not there are sufficient stocks to buffer its impact. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved.

Radovanovic M.,Educons University | Filipovic S.,Economics Institute | Pavlovic D.,Gazprom
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

The main objective of this paper is to define a{cyrillic} new energy security indicator with the long-term sustainability and to test it in a sample of 28 European Union countries for the period 1990-2012, as well as to determine the level of impact of six different indicators on energy security. The previous methodologies for measuring of energy security have been mainly focused on security of supply, while not taking into account environmental indicators and the social component. The newly proposed indicator, Energy Security Index, differs from the existing measuring methods precisely in a way that it includes environmental and social aspects. Energy Security Index recorded a decline in values in most countries in the period 1990-2000. In the period 2000-2008, the values became positive, and after 2008 some countries reported again gradual deterioration. The Index value varies by year, and the biggest positive changes were recorded in the case of the Netherlands, Slovenia and Spain. The four economically strongest EU countries (the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy) recorded significantly less fluctuations in energy security over 23 years, compared to other countries. The data for France and Denmark show that an increased share of energy from nuclear and renewable sources can compensate even increased energy import dependence. The assessment of impact of individual indicators on Energy Security Index was conducted by using Principal Component Analysis and showed that Energy Intensity, GDP per capita and Carbon Intensity have the greatest impact. The countries of the former Eastern Bloc are facing particular challenges of energy security, which is primarily related to the rapid economic growth and, at the same time, a high degree of dependence on import of energy generating products. In terms of energy security, the most stable transition was reported in Hungary and Poland. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Golusin M.,Educons University | Munitlak Ivanovic O.,Educons University | Filipovic S.,Economics Institute | Andrejevic A.,Educons University | Djuran J.,Educons University
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

In this paper, the authors intend to show that environmental taxes are an economic instrument that entirely supports the principles of sustainable development and has impact on balanced improvement of all its four pillars (economic, ecological, social, and institutional). Environmental taxes provide a flexible and cost-effective means for reinforcing the polluter-pays principle and for reaching environmental policy objectives. Enforcement of environmental taxes (and penalties) simultaneously generates multiple values - it stimulates ecologically acceptable production, generates budget revenue, and stimulates socially responsible behavior. The subject of the analysis is determination of environmental taxes in the European Union (EU) member states in total amount and as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), as well as monitoring of their trend in the period 2005-2010. To obtain a broad picture, results collected for EU-27 region have been compared with data for sample countries worldwide, including Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) countries. The revenue from environmental taxes in the EU-27 is not negligible, amounting to about 3% of total revenues. The highest tax revenue as a percent of GDP was noted in Denmark - 9% on average. Environmentally related revenues and their percent of GDP in sample countries reported diverse results. In the USA, China, and India, environmentally related revenue as a percent of GDP stood at around 1%, with a downward trend in time. The highest tax revenue as a percent of GDP was recorded in Turkey, Russia, South Africa, and Brazil, 4% on average, with an upward trend in time. However, increasing revenues from environmental taxes should be interpreted with caution. The increases may be caused by the introduction of new taxes or an increase in tax rates, or alternatively may be linked to an increase in the tax base. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Filipovic S.,Economics Institute | Golusin M.,Educons University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Main problem addressed in this paper is assessment of quality of current methodologies for expressing environmental tax revenue, since measurements' outcomes have significant influence on the future environmental policies and legislation. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the existing way of measuring financial effects of environmental taxation in EU27 and propose new methodology approach, based on use of ETE - Environmental Taxation Efficiency as a new indicator suggested by authors. The first phase of the study involves the analysis of quality of measuring two existing methodologies (based on the use of GDP and total revenues). In second research stage, the authors apply the newly proposed methodology for determining a composite ETE indicator that, apart from existing indicators, takes into account the environmental taxation effects per capita, as an indicator unjustifiably neglected in previous methods of measuring. Measurement of environmental taxation by using a newly-proposed composite indicator shows significant differences in ranking compared to two current methodologies in use. Only 6 countries showed a very similar rank, regardless of the methodology applied. Differences by more than ten ranking positions were found in 12 countries. The overall results showed significant differences in ranking of all EU-27 countries by using all four indicated methodologies, which clearly points to the conclusion that further improvements are needed. ETE methodology limits predominant role of GDP and introduces a social component which should serve as a basis for further development of a unique methodology for establishing efficient environmental taxation implementation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Radovanovic M.,Educons University | Filipovic S.,Economics Institute
Energy and Environment | Year: 2015

The main objective of this manuscript is to look anew at Energy intensity, an indicator often used as measure of efficient economic development, which currently does not include any environmental component. The authors compared results obtained on the same sample by using Energy Intensity, a well known indicator, and Index of Energy Intensity Cost, an improved indicator suggested by the authors. The new indicator includes carbon emission cost, since 96% of carbon emission is result of energy consumption. Besides the introduction of a new component, the authors changed the nature of the indicator itself. Namely, traditional Energy intensity is based on physical values. The new indicator is expressed in monetary values - more suitable for monitoring economic development. Monitoring in the EU27 region, by using two chosen indicators, shows opposite results. Measuring of Energy Intensity, EU27 region showed positive trends. Measuring of Index of Energy Intensity Cost showed negative trends. Further modifications to Energy intensity are needed.

In this study, we collected and analyzed information on the importance of drug packaging quality to end users and pharmaceutical industry, as an indicator of the process of traceability and originality of drugs. Two surveys were conducted: one among the end users of drugs (252 patients) and the other among professionals working in seven pharmaceutical companies in Serbia. For most end users (82.5%), the quality of the packaging was important, but only 41.8% of them thought that the appearance of the packaging could be an indicator of genuinity of drugs. The existence of the control marks (KM) on drug packaging was not of great importance, since most of the users (86.9%) know its function, but the majority (60.2%) would nevertheless decide to buy the drug without KM. Regarding the experts from the pharmaceutical industry, more then two thirds (68.4%) believed that the existance of KM did not contribute to efficient operations. Although a great number of pharmaceutical industry professionals (84.2%) answered that the introduction of GS1 DataMatrix system would allow for complete traceability of the drug from the manufacturer to the end user, only 22.2% of them introduced this system to their products. This study also showed that domestic producers did not have a great interest for additional protection (special inks, holograms, special graphics, smart multicolor design, watermark, chemically labeled paper and cardboard, etc.) on their products, given that only 15.8% of them had some kind of additional protection against counterfeiting. Monitoring drug traceability from a manufacturer to end user is achieved by many complex activities regulated by law. A high percentage of responders said they were satisfied with the functionality of traceability systems used in their companies. As a way to increase the quality of drug packaging and business performance, most responders saw in the continuous improvement of the system of traceability within the company's overall quality management system. For them, a big financial investment in the complete traceability chain was not feasible because of the inability to achieve competitive prices in the market. Since only three of the surveyed companies were part of international chains, these findings open the path for new research that would include more multinational drug manufacturers from the region, in order to fully comprehend the importance of investing in the drug chain traceability and protection against counterfeiting, as a part of total quality management process in the pharmaceutical industry.

News Article | November 6, 2016

The Greek prime minister, Alexis Tsipras, has reshuffled his government to boost bailout reforms in the hope of getting the EU to agree to critical debt relief by the end of the year. Heralding a new political era for his country, the embattled leader said on Sunday the time had come to expedite measures demanded by international creditors and “turn the page”. Hardline ministers who had criticised policies including privatisations were dumped for moderate technocrats in what was interpreted as a further shift to the centre by the man who once personified the hope of Europe’s radical left. “We are very near the end of a long period of very difficult decisions,” he told his newly assembled cabinet. Tsipras said reform negotiations had to be concluded by 5 December so that eurozone finance ministers, holding their last meeting this year, could begin debating how best to cut the country’s debt. At over €320bn (£285bn), Greece’s debt pile is regarded as its biggest impediment to economic recovery. In a move aimed at placating the lenders who have bailed out Greece three times since its economic near-collapse six years ago, the respected US-based economics professor Dimitri Papadimitriou was appointed economy minister. The 70-year-old head of the Levy Economics Institute, a thinktank, will have oversight of investment policies and EU structural funds. Signalling he would push ahead with the often unpopular policies demanded by Greece’s lenders – the European Union and the International Monetary Fund – Tsipras also retained the finance minister, Euclid Tsakalotos. The Oxford-educated economics professor has won plaudits for his low-key efficacy, in sharp contrast to his forerunner, Yanis Varoufakis. Stergios Pitsiorlas, a veteran leftist who helped found the ruling Syriza party, was elevated to the position of deputy economy minister. In his previous role as chairman of Greece’s privatisation agency, Pitsiorlas had been praised for his no-nonsense approach to disposing of cash-draining state assets. The shipping minister, Theodoros Dritsas, who was against further investment in Piraeus port by the Chinese conglomerate Cosco was among those dropped, while Panos Skourletis, the energy and environment minister, who had vehemently opposed the partial privatisation of the Public Power Corporation, was moved to the interior ministry. Skourletis, an established Syriza figure, was described by insiders as too powerful to be removed altogether. He was replaced by George Stathakis who had held the economy ministry portfolio. The septuagenarian leftist ideologue Aristides Baltas, who had been culture minister, was similarly replaced by Lydia Koniordou, Greece’s foremost female classical actor. A new migration ministry was also established, reflecting the country’s frontline role in the refugee crisis and allowing the deputy migration minister, Ioannis Mouzalas, to tap into resources and administrative backup in his promoted role as minister. The popularity of Tsipras’s two-party coalition has been in free-fall. A Public Issue poll last week put the government 24 percentage points behind the centre right New Democracy, the main opposition party. Tax increases and sustained cuts to wages and benefits have corroded its support with thousands of pensioners recently taking to the streets in protest in Athens. With many of the measures beginning to bite this winter, the challenges remain immense for the country still seen as Europe’s weakest link. Tsipras told his 48-member cabinet that by completing reforms Greece could “follow the roadmap” of being included in the European Central Bank’s quantitative easing programme early next year, which would see the bank acquire Greek government debt. The government is also aiming to regain access to debt markets by the time its latest bailout expires in 2018.

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