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Belgrade, Serbia

Filipovic S.,Economics Institute | Verbic M.,University of Ljubljana | Radovanovic M.,Educons University
Energy | Year: 2015

The aim of this article is to analyse the energy intensity in EU-28 member states for the period 1990-2012, establish its determinants, and estimate the size and statistical significance of the effect of each determinant on energy intensity. In order to achieve this, a panel data approach was designed for EU-28 member states. The estimated model showed that energy prices, energy taxes and GDP (gross domestic product) per capita have a negative influence on energy intensity, while the growth of gross inland consumption and final energy consumption per capita positively affect energy intensity. The biggest impact on energy intensity was estimated for the price of electricity, indicating that the level and structure of this determinant should be considered and used as a valuable energy policy tool for improving energy efficiency. This policy conclusion is also supported by the fact that Denmark, Germany and Italy have the highest share of energy taxes in the structure of the final electricity price, and at the same time the lowest energy intensity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Cvijanovic J.M.,Megatrend University | Sajfert Z.,Technical faculty M. Pupin | Grujcic Z.,Srednjoskolski centar | Lazic J.,Economics Institute
Technics Technologies Education Management | Year: 2010

Changes in any sphere of human activity involve not only certain risks, but also certain betterments and improvements. Changes in the educational system are especially sensitive because any error in this area will become evident only after a certain delay, which can be utterly undesirable if one bears in mind that it takes a lot of time to have educated personnel assume their place in the economy and society of their country. It is generally known that the wealth of a nation is also measured by its educational resources. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of Belgrade's government secondary schools of mechanical engineering by applying the DEA method.

Radovanovic M.,Educons University | Filipovic S.,Economics Institute | Pavlovic D.,Gazprom
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

The main objective of this paper is to define a{cyrillic} new energy security indicator with the long-term sustainability and to test it in a sample of 28 European Union countries for the period 1990-2012, as well as to determine the level of impact of six different indicators on energy security. The previous methodologies for measuring of energy security have been mainly focused on security of supply, while not taking into account environmental indicators and the social component. The newly proposed indicator, Energy Security Index, differs from the existing measuring methods precisely in a way that it includes environmental and social aspects. Energy Security Index recorded a decline in values in most countries in the period 1990-2000. In the period 2000-2008, the values became positive, and after 2008 some countries reported again gradual deterioration. The Index value varies by year, and the biggest positive changes were recorded in the case of the Netherlands, Slovenia and Spain. The four economically strongest EU countries (the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy) recorded significantly less fluctuations in energy security over 23 years, compared to other countries. The data for France and Denmark show that an increased share of energy from nuclear and renewable sources can compensate even increased energy import dependence. The assessment of impact of individual indicators on Energy Security Index was conducted by using Principal Component Analysis and showed that Energy Intensity, GDP per capita and Carbon Intensity have the greatest impact. The countries of the former Eastern Bloc are facing particular challenges of energy security, which is primarily related to the rapid economic growth and, at the same time, a high degree of dependence on import of energy generating products. In terms of energy security, the most stable transition was reported in Hungary and Poland. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Golusin M.,Educons University | Munitlak Ivanovic O.,Educons University | Filipovic S.,Economics Institute | Andrejevic A.,Educons University | Djuran J.,Educons University
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2013

In this paper, the authors intend to show that environmental taxes are an economic instrument that entirely supports the principles of sustainable development and has impact on balanced improvement of all its four pillars (economic, ecological, social, and institutional). Environmental taxes provide a flexible and cost-effective means for reinforcing the polluter-pays principle and for reaching environmental policy objectives. Enforcement of environmental taxes (and penalties) simultaneously generates multiple values - it stimulates ecologically acceptable production, generates budget revenue, and stimulates socially responsible behavior. The subject of the analysis is determination of environmental taxes in the European Union (EU) member states in total amount and as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), as well as monitoring of their trend in the period 2005-2010. To obtain a broad picture, results collected for EU-27 region have been compared with data for sample countries worldwide, including Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) countries. The revenue from environmental taxes in the EU-27 is not negligible, amounting to about 3% of total revenues. The highest tax revenue as a percent of GDP was noted in Denmark - 9% on average. Environmentally related revenues and their percent of GDP in sample countries reported diverse results. In the USA, China, and India, environmentally related revenue as a percent of GDP stood at around 1%, with a downward trend in time. The highest tax revenue as a percent of GDP was recorded in Turkey, Russia, South Africa, and Brazil, 4% on average, with an upward trend in time. However, increasing revenues from environmental taxes should be interpreted with caution. The increases may be caused by the introduction of new taxes or an increase in tax rates, or alternatively may be linked to an increase in the tax base. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

In this study, we collected and analyzed information on the importance of drug packaging quality to end users and pharmaceutical industry, as an indicator of the process of traceability and originality of drugs. Two surveys were conducted: one among the end users of drugs (252 patients) and the other among professionals working in seven pharmaceutical companies in Serbia. For most end users (82.5%), the quality of the packaging was important, but only 41.8% of them thought that the appearance of the packaging could be an indicator of genuinity of drugs. The existence of the control marks (KM) on drug packaging was not of great importance, since most of the users (86.9%) know its function, but the majority (60.2%) would nevertheless decide to buy the drug without KM. Regarding the experts from the pharmaceutical industry, more then two thirds (68.4%) believed that the existance of KM did not contribute to efficient operations. Although a great number of pharmaceutical industry professionals (84.2%) answered that the introduction of GS1 DataMatrix system would allow for complete traceability of the drug from the manufacturer to the end user, only 22.2% of them introduced this system to their products. This study also showed that domestic producers did not have a great interest for additional protection (special inks, holograms, special graphics, smart multicolor design, watermark, chemically labeled paper and cardboard, etc.) on their products, given that only 15.8% of them had some kind of additional protection against counterfeiting. Monitoring drug traceability from a manufacturer to end user is achieved by many complex activities regulated by law. A high percentage of responders said they were satisfied with the functionality of traceability systems used in their companies. As a way to increase the quality of drug packaging and business performance, most responders saw in the continuous improvement of the system of traceability within the company's overall quality management system. For them, a big financial investment in the complete traceability chain was not feasible because of the inability to achieve competitive prices in the market. Since only three of the surveyed companies were part of international chains, these findings open the path for new research that would include more multinational drug manufacturers from the region, in order to fully comprehend the importance of investing in the drug chain traceability and protection against counterfeiting, as a part of total quality management process in the pharmaceutical industry.

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