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Wylie C.E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Carbonell-Antonanzas M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Aiassa E.,European Food Safety Authority | Dhollander S.,European Food Safety Authority | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of topically applied insecticide treatments of dogs (impregnated collars, spot-ons), and prophylactic medications to prevent natural Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs.Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated preventive efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified.The search yielded 937 articles, from which 84 full text articles were selected for second stage screening. Eleven eligible studies were included; four on collars (two RCTs), three on spot-ons (two RCTs - one looking at two different dosing regimens), three on prophylactic medications (all RCTs) and one on both collars and spot-ons summarised in this paper. All of the studies were considered to be at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, with the exception of one spot-on study which was considered to be at an unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Deltamethrin collars, 65% permethrin, 10% imidacloprid with 50% permethrin spot-ons and domperidone prophylactic medication tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Wylie C.E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Carbonell-Antonanzas M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Aiassa E.,European Food Safety Authority | Dhollander S.,European Food Safety Authority | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear.The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs.Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified.The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200μg ALM protein, Leishmune®, CaniLeish®, LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly increased the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence.There is peer-reviewed evidence that control measures are effective in preventing CanL with the results suggesting that between 6 and 54% of infections could be prevented with vaccination. However, this evidence is based on a small number of RCTs, all of which are either at high or unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Well-designed, adequately powered and properly reported randomised clinical trials are needed to clearly establish efficacy of vaccines as CanL control measures. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Robin C.A.,Animal Health Trust | Ireland J.L.,Animal Health Trust | Wylie C.E.,Rossdales Equine Hospital | Collins S.N.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Equine Veterinary Journal | Year: 2015

Reasons for performing the study: Few data are available on the prevalence of obesity in the general equine population of Great Britain (GB), and its associated risk factors. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of owner-reported obesity in veterinary-registered horses and ponies in GB, and identify factors associated with obesity. Study design: A cross-sectional survey of horse/pony owners in GB was undertaken using a postal questionnaire. Methods: Thirty veterinary practices randomly selected horse/pony owners to complete a self-administered postal questionnaire. Owners estimated body condition score using a modified Carroll and Huntington method (1-6 scale), and animals were classified as obese if they were scored as either 5 (fat) or 6 (very fat). Factors associated with obesity were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of obesity was 31.2% (n = 247/792; 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.9-34.2%). Factors associated with increased odds of obesity were breed (P<0.001), ease of maintaining weight (P<0.001) and primary use (P = 0.002). Compared to Thoroughbreds, draught-type (odds ratio [OR] 7.3; 95% CI 3.1-17.1), cob-type (OR 5.6; 95% CI 2.5-12.5), native (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8-5.78) and Welsh breeds (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.9-6.2) were more likely to be obese. Animals described as 'good doers' were more likely to be obese than those described as readily maintaining normal weight (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.6-5.3). Compared to competition animals, animals used for pleasure riding (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.4) and nonridden animals (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.5) were more likely to be obese. Conclusions: Identification of at-risk breeds and other horse- and management-level risk factors for obesity will enable optimal targeting of owner education regarding management strategies to reduce the frequency of equine obesity. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.


PubMed | SAFOSO AG, United Kingdom; SAFOSO AG and Economics and Public Health Group
Type: | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2016

Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T. saginata cysticercus infected and non-infected animals, and an assessment of the strength of association between having passed through a farm that had previously originated an infected animal and the risk of infection; (iii) the assessment of the relationship between bovine age and gender and risk of infection. Abattoir records and cattle movement history data were used to identify farms of likely acquisition of infection (case farms) and a suitable control group. A questionnaire was used to gather farm-level characteristics and logistic regression was carried out to identify farm-level risk factors for the production of cattle found to be infected at slaughter. The case-control study provided evidence that farms situated close to a permanent potential source of human faecal contamination, and farms which used manure from animals other than cattle, were at higher risk of producing cattle later found to be infected with T. saginata cysticercus at slaughter. No other farm characteristics were identified as a risk factor for this. Analysis of the networks of animal movements showed that some individual farms played a key role as a source of T. saginata cysticercus infection; it was estimated that cattle with a history of being on a farm which previously appeared in the movement history of an infected animal were 4.27 times (P<0.001; 95% CI: 3.3-5.52) more likely to be diagnosed with T. saginata cysticercus infection at meat inspection. Male cattle aged 20 months or younger at the time of slaughter were found at lower risk of T. saginata cysticercus infection by comparison to other sex or age groups of cattle. These results, in combination with the consultation of experts and stakeholders, led to the conclusion that abattoir-based surveillance in low T. saginata cysticercus prevalence settings, such as Great Britain, could be made more targeted by stratifying cattle based on their individual movement history, sex and age characteristics.


Pietschmann J.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | Guinat C.,Economics and Public Health Group | Beer M.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | Pronin V.,National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology of Russia | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2015

In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Transcaucasian countries and Russia. Since then, it has spread alarmingly and reached the European Union. ASFV strains are highly virulent and lead to almost 100 % mortality under experimental conditions. However, the possibility of dose-dependent disease courses has been discussed. For this reason, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of chronic disease and the establishment of carriers upon low-dose oronasal infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar. It was demonstrated that very low doses of ASFV are sufficient to infect especially weak or runted animals by the oronasal route. Some of these animals did not show clinical signs indicative of ASF, and they developed almost no fever. However, no changes were observed in individual animal regarding the onset, course and outcome of infection as assessed by diagnostic tests. After amplification of ASFV by these animals, pen- and stablemates became infected and developed acute lethal disease with similar characteristics in all animals. Thus, we found no indication of prolonged or chronic individual courses upon low-dose infection in either species. The scattered onset of clinical signs and pathogen detection within and among groups confirms moderate contagiosity that is strongly linked with blood contact. In conclusion, the prolonged course at the “herd level” together with the exceptionally low dose that proved to be sufficient to infect a runted wild boar could be important for disease dynamics in wild-boar populations and in backyard settings. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.


Wylie C.E.,Center for Preventive Medicine | Ireland J.L.,Center for Preventive Medicine | Collins S.N.,University of Queensland | Verheyen K.L.P.,Economics and Public Health Group | Newton J.R.,Center for Preventive Medicine
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to describe the demographic characteristics and management practices undertaken by owners of horses/ponies within GB and assess seasonal and geographical variations in management practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted, surveying a random sample of veterinary-registered owners in GB, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. A total of 797 useable responses were received. Only 4.0% of animals were stabled 24. h/day, this proportion being greater in winter compared to other seasons (p< 0.001). Shavings (45.7%) and straw (35.3%) were the most frequently used bedding. Ninety-two percent of animals had access to pasture (median 91. h/week). The majority of animals received forage (82.6%) and concentrate/supplementary feeding (86.1%). Retired/companion animals and ponies received supplementary feed less frequently and most animals were used for pleasure riding (60.6%). Seasonal and regional differences in management practices were identified, of relevance to practitioners and researchers in the investigation and management of disease conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wylie C.E.,Center for Preventive Medicine | Collins S.N.,University of Queensland | Verheyen K.L.P.,Economics and Public Health Group | Newton J.R.,Center for Preventive Medicine
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2013

Laminitis is a highly debilitating disease of the foot known to have a complex and multifactorial aetiology of metabolic, inflammatory, traumatic or vascular origin. The disease has major welfare implications due to unrelenting pain associated with degenerative changes, which often necessitate euthanasia on welfare grounds. Despite this, there have been few high-quality studies investigating risk factors for equine laminitis, and only a limited number of risk factors have been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study of risk factors for active episodes of veterinary-diagnosed laminitis in horses and ponies attended by veterinary practitioners in Great Britain, based on multivariable statistical analyses. Questionnaires were received for 1010 animals, comprising 191 laminitis cases and 819 controls. Factors associated with an increased risk of laminitis were weight gain in the previous 3. months, summer and winter months compared to spring, new access to grass in the previous 4. weeks, box rest in the previous week, owner-reported history of laminitis, lameness or foot-soreness after shoeing/trimming, existing endocrinopathic (pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome) disease and increasing time since the last anthelmintic treatment. Factors associated with a decreased risk of laminitis were increasing height (cm), feeding of additional supplements in the previous week and transportation in the previous week. Novel associated factors were identified that may aid in the management and prevention of the disease in the veterinary-registered equine population. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Pfeiffer D.U.,Economics and Public Health Group | Stevens K.B.,Economics and Public Health Group
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

Concurrent with global economic development in the last 50 years, the opportunities for the spread of existing diseases and emergence of new infectious pathogens, have increased substantially. The activities associated with the enormously intensified global connectivity have resulted in large amounts of data being generated, which in turn provides opportunities for generating knowledge that will allow more effective management of animal and human health risks. This so-called Big Data has, more recently, been accompanied by the Internet of Things which highlights the increasing presence of a wide range of sensors, interconnected via the Internet. Analysis of this data needs to exploit its complexity, accommodate variation in data quality and should take advantage of its spatial and temporal dimensions, where available. Apart from the development of hardware technologies and networking/communication infrastructure, it is necessary to develop appropriate data management tools that make this data accessible for analysis. This includes relational databases, geographical information systems and most recently, cloud-based data storage such as Hadoop distributed file systems. While the development in analytical methodologies has not quite caught up with the data deluge, important advances have been made in a number of areas, including spatial and temporal data analysis where the spectrum of analytical methods ranges from visualisation and exploratory analysis, to modelling. While there used to be a primary focus on statistical science in terms of methodological development for data analysis, the newly emerged discipline of data science is a reflection of the challenges presented by the need to integrate diverse data sources and exploit them using novel data- and knowledge-driven modelling methods while simultaneously recognising the value of quantitative as well as qualitative analytical approaches. Machine learning regression methods, which are more robust and can handle large datasets faster than classical regression approaches, are now also used to analyse spatial and spatio-temporal data. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods have gained greater acceptance, due in part, to the need to increasingly combine data from diverse sources including published scientific information and expert opinion in an attempt to fill important knowledge gaps. The opportunities for more effective prevention, detection and control of animal health threats arising from these developments are immense, but not without risks given the different types, and much higher frequency, of biases associated with these data. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Stevens K.B.,Economics and Public Health Group | Pfeiffer D.U.,Economics and Public Health Group
Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology | Year: 2015

During the last 30. years it has become commonplace for epidemiological studies to collect locational attributes of disease data. Although this advancement was driven largely by the introduction of handheld global positioning systems (GPS), and more recently, smartphones and tablets with built-in GPS, the collection of georeferenced disease data has moved beyond the use of handheld GPS devices and there now exist numerous sources of crowdsourced georeferenced disease data such as that available from georeferencing of Google search queries or Twitter messages. In addition, cartography has moved beyond the realm of professionals to crowdsourced mapping projects that play a crucial role in disease control and surveillance of outbreaks such as the 2014 West Africa Ebola epidemic. This paper provides a comprehensive review of a range of innovative sources of spatial animal and human health data including data warehouses, mHealth, Google Earth, volunteered geographic information and mining of internet-based big data sources such as Google and Twitter. We discuss the advantages, limitations and applications of each, and highlight studies where they have been used effectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Risk analysis is now widely accepted amongst veterinary authorities and other stakeholders around the world as a conceptual framework for integrating scientific evidence into animal health decision making. The resulting risk management for most diseases primarily involves linking epidemiological understanding with diagnostics and/or vaccines. Recent disease outbreaks such as Nipah virus, SARS, avian influenza H5N1, bluetongue serotype 8 and Schmallenberg virus have led to realising that we need to explicitly take into account the underlying complex interactions between environmental, epidemiological and social factors which are often also spatially and temporally heterogeneous as well as interconnected across affected regions and beyond. A particular challenge is to obtain adequate understanding of the influence of human behaviour and to translate this into effective mechanisms leading to appropriate behaviour change where necessary. Both, the One Health and the ecohealth approaches reflect the need for such a holistic systems perspective, however the current implementation of risk analysis frameworks for animal health and food safety is still dominated by a natural or biomedical perspective of science as is the implementation of control and prevention policies. This article proposes to integrate the risk analysis approach with a risk governance framework which explicitly adds the socio-economic context to policy development and emphasizes the need for organisational change and stakeholder engagement. © 2014 Istituto G. Caporale.

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