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Liang W.J.,Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province | Dong D.F.,Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province | Wang G.X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Dong F.X.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Corylus heterophylla Fisch. is a specific wild species native to northern China, with strong adaptability to low temperature. In order to obtain hazelnut cultivars with large nut size and adaptability in the frigid terrain, the inter-species cross breeding of C. heterophylla Fisch. × C. avellana L. was performed in the 1980s. A group of cultivars and advanced selections were obtained after nearly 20 years of research and the cultivation trials were further performed in several areas of different climatic conditions in northern China. The cultivars and advanced selections like 'Dawei', 'Liaozhen 3' and 'Liaozhen 7' could adapt to -35°C, 'Ping'ou 33', 'Ping'ou 237' and 'Ping'ou 48' could adapt to -30°C, and 'Liaozhen 1' could adapt to -25°C at the dormancy stage. The average weight of these cultivars and advanced selections are 2.6-3.0 g per nut, the kernels are easily blanched and kernel rates are 38.9-47.5% by weight. The cultivars and advanced selections began their bearing 2-3 years after being planted. The yields in the 5th, 7th and 10th year are 660-1110, 2220-2553 and 2325-3000 kg/ha, respectively and high adaptability to soil pH value of 5.5 to 8.0. The successful progress of the hazelnut breeding program greatly promoted the hazelnut industry in China. Source


Xie M.,Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province | Liu Z.P.,Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The studies are to select pollinated cultivars of hybrid hazelnut (Corylus heterophylla Fisch. × C. avellana L.) by testing the pollen viability and pollen-stigma compatibility. The pollen viability of 5 hybrid hazelnuts was tested with the agar culture method. The pollen-stigma compatibility among 10 hybrid hazelnuts was observed by fluorescence microscope. The result showed that the pollen viability sequence from the highest to the lowest was '1-21', '82-11', 'Liaozhen 3', 'Yuzhui' and 'Dawei'. The pollen-stigma compatibility testing result was that only '1-21' showed best pollen-stigma compatibility among the 5 tested hybrid hazelnuts. It was demonstrated that 1-21 was the best pollinated cultivar. Source


Xie M.,Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province | Zheng J.L.,Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province | Wang D.M.,Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The specific ecological conditions in China and the social needs led to a large scale program of hazelnut breeding 30 years ago. In order to achieve the target, Corylus heterophylla Fisch. and European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) were used in the breeding program by the Economic Forestry Research Institute of Liaoning Province (EFRI). EFRI is located in Dalian, northeast of China. The breeding program was initially based on interspecific crosses. C. heterophylla and European hazelnut were used as parents. From 1990, more then 6000 hybrids and more than 40 advanced selections were obtained. Five experimental fields were established to evaluate the advanced selections. Two of the five experimental fields are in Dalian (at a latitude of 39°N, and the average annual temperature is 10°C, the rainfall is about 600 mm). Two of them in Fushun (at a latitude of 42°N, the average annual temperature is 6.5-7°C, the rainfall is about 810 mm). Fushun is very cold in winter, the minimum temperature is -35.2°C. one of the experimental fields is in Shenyang (at a latitude of 42°N, and the average annual temperature is 7.5°C, the rainfall is about 740 mm). As the results of the breeding program, nine cultivars such as: 'Dawei', 'Liaozhen3', 'Liaozhen4' were released. Eight of the cultivars are for table consumption, and one for industry. The cultivars are productive, cold hardy and well-adapted to the environmental conditions of China. It changed the hazelnut industry of China from the utilization of wild resources nut collecting to horticultural cultivation. The approximate area of hazelnut plantation in China is about 10,000 hectares. Source

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