Wu J.,Beijing Jiaotong University |
Nash C.,University of Leeds |
Wang D.,Economic and Planning Research Institute
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2014
This paper addresses the question of whether the construction of new high speed lines is the most cost efficient way of solving the rail capacity problems of China. China has the most heavily used rail network in the world and rail traffic has doubled in the last 10. years. Rail continues to have a major share of both passenger and freight markets. The need for a large increase in rail capacity seems clear. If volumes are high enough, there is an argument that system efficiency is maximised by segregating freight and passenger traffic in order to eliminate conflicts between the two and thus maximise capacity utilisation. In Europe this has often been achieved by building new high speed lines for passenger traffic, and leaving existing lines to freight and regional passenger services. It is argued that if a new line has to be constructed, then it is worth the additional cost of providing for high speeds for the extra benefits this brings.This philosophy has been adopted for much of the new construction in China, including the crucial 1300. km Beijing-Shanghai line. But it has been very controversial. It is argued that in Chinese conditions high speed rail is very much more expensive to build than conventional rail. Its construction has led to the Ministry of Railways becoming very heavily in debt, whilst to try to ease the problem high speed rail fares have been set at three times those on conventional rail, reducing the relief to capacity problems by leaving substantial passenger traffic on the existing routes. China, despite its astonishing economic growth in recent decades, remains a relatively poor country and values of time remain low by European standards; moreover they differ enormously between regions.This paper shows that, at existing Chinese values of time, new conventional lines are generally a better solution to Chinese railway capacity problems than high speed rail. Whilst a limited amount of high speed rail construction in the richest and most densely populated parts of the country may be justified, in a country as large and diverse as China, regional differences must be taken into account in determining the appropriate rail investment policy. © 2014 .
Liu J.,Tianjin University of Finance and Economy |
Shen Z.,Economic and Planning Research Institute
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011
Some commercial banks in China active in the implementation of green credit policy, got remarkable results. Some local governments actively promote on the progress of the green credit policy. However, many problems encountered in the implementation of low carbon finance in China. In the future, China is going to actively develop a strategic planning of low-carbon finance development, improve the legal framework for financial supervision, regulate the development of carbon finance, foster low-carbon financial innovation mechanism, innovate and develop a variety of low-carbon financial instruments, improve low carbon financial intermediation services to carry out low-carbon finance, actively promote an international carbon trading process of the renminbi-denominated. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Liu J.-Y.,Economic and Planning Research Institute |
Liu J.-Y.,Tsinghua University |
Liu J.-Y.,China Power Engineering Consulting Group Corporation |
Zhao Y.,Economic and Planning Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics | Year: 2013
Size effect of tunnel deformation has been studied in this paper based on the deformation mechanism of different structures of rock mass. Size effect on deformation of rock mass surrounding tunnels closely relates to deformation mechanism of rock mass. Deformation mechanism of surrounding rock, which is intricate and diverse because of structural planes in the rock, includes material deformation and structural deformation. Size effect of deformation also reflects in the material deformation and structural deformation. Material deformation of surrounding rock varies directly as cross-section dimension of tunnels. Size effect of structural deformation is much more intricate. On the one hand, cross-section dimension of tunnels affects structure type of surrounding rock which closely relates to deformation mechanism; while amount of deformation provoked by different deformation mechanisms varies a great deal. On the other hand, in a same surrounding rock, amount of deformation provoked by an identical deformation mechanism also varies with size of tunnels. In the massive surrounding rock, for example, immobile rock surrounding tunnels will convert into movable rock in company with increase of cross section dimension of tunnels, and sliding or rolling deformation occurs sequentially. In the layered surrounding rock, bending deformation of rock stratification varies directly as the square of cross-section dimension of tunnels.