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Johannesburg, South Africa

Bigum M.,Technical University of Denmark | Petersen C.,Econet Inc. | Christensen T.H.,Technical University of Denmark | Scheutz C.,Technical University of Denmark
Waste Management | Year: 2013

A total of 26.1. Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6. kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11. kg of batteries, 2.2. kg of toners and 16. kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29. g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4. g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1. g of toners and 7. g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these findings are taken into account when designing new or improving existing special waste collection schemes. Improving the collection of WEEE is also recommended as one way to also improve the collection of batteries due to the large fraction of batteries found as built-in. The findings in this study were comparable to other western European studies, suggesting that the recommendations made in this study could apply to other western European countries as well. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Larsen A.W.,Technical University of Denmark | Petersen C.,Econet Inc. | Christensen T.H.,Technical University of Denmark
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2012

Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250?kg capita?1 year?1, and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. © International Solid Waste Association 2012.

Econet Inc. | Date: 2009-04-21

Make-up; perfume; cologne; skin lightener; sunscreen; non-medicated skin repair preparation; powders, creams, oils and lotions for after sun exposure; anti-wrinkle creams; hair lotions; hair care preparations; other cosmetics and non-medicated toiletries.

Econet Inc. | Date: 2013-01-10

Dietary supplements all containing aloe.

Econet Inc. | Date: 2013-01-10

Massage oil, skin moisturizer, skin toners, skin cream, esthetic essence in the nature of essential oils for personal use and esthetic massage cream all containing aloe.

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