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News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: phys.org

A target of both the recreational fishing and shark-fin trade, the global population of the instantly recognizable Great Hammerhead shark is estimated to have declined by ~80% over the last 25 years. The Great Hammerhead has been listed on the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) as endangered since 2007. It has also recently been included in CITES Appendix II, which regulates the international trade of threatened species. Despite recognition of its threatened status, effective protection and management has so far been hampered by a lack of information about the shark's behaviour. However, new research published in Frontiers in Marine Science, gives a ray of hope. By defining the sharks' use of particular areas, this study gives marine management and conservation officials the ability to limit the sharks' interaction with their greatest threat – humans. Importantly, this study looked at the temporal as well as the spatial aspect of the sharks' movements. Dr Tristan Guttridge, who led the study at the Bimini Biological Research Station, Bahamas, explains why this is so vital: "Knowing when the animals are likely to be in certain places will be critical in developing effective management strategies" he said. "For example, our data could be used to create so-called 'time-area closures', where certain areas are closed to particular activities, like fishing, at different times. The aim would be to reduce harmful interactions with the sharks." Dr Charlie Huveneers of the Southern Shark Ecology Group in Flinders University, Australia, agrees. "New information about movements of Great Hammerheads will help managers and regulators to ensure sustainable catches, and to improve international regulation and management" he said. "Thanks to the combination of methods used by the authors, the study has revealed complex movement patterns, with broad-scale migrations across jurisdictions as far North as Virginia, USA, as well as seasonal site fidelity in Florida and the Bahamas." The team of researchers tagged the sharks with both acoustic and satellite tags, and used photo identification and laser photogrammetry. They were able to observe return-migrations of over 3000km. They also discovered that the sharks came "home" after migrating away to find food, pup or mate, and that they returned to the same sites for up to five months. This type of predictable behaviour makes them particularly vulnerable to fisheries. "Recreational fishing in the USA is likely having quite an impact on great hammerheads" explains Guttridge. "We know that hammerheads are the third most common shark reported by Florida recreational fishing charter boats, and great hammerheads specifically are considered one of the most attractive species to catch by clients," he added. This study is the first to provide evidence that Great Hammerheads return to particular areas after migrations, rather than the perhaps more common perception of these sharks as "ocean wanderers." This discovery has great implications for marine management, and the development of MPAs (Marine Protected Areas). However, many challenges remain in securing a safe future for these sharks. Like these highly migratory animals, management strategies will need to cross jurisdictional and international borders in order to be effective. "We have only just scratched the surface of defining key spatial hotspots, but clearly for these highly mobile sharks, we need international cooperation" said Dr Guttridge, "and unfortunately, sharks refuse to acknowledge national boundaries." The implications of the temporal aspect of migrations will also need further investigation. The sharks will be more vulnerable at different times. "For our team, the next challenge is identifying what they are doing in these locations" said Guttridge, "as there are more sensitive life stages, such as pupping/mating sites that are a priority for conservation efforts." Explore further: Study says marine protected areas can benefit large sharks More information: Tristan L. Guttridge et al. Philopatry and Regional Connectivity of the Great Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna mokarran in the U.S. and Bahamas, Frontiers in Marine Science (2017). DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00003


News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New information on the migration patterns of the Great Hammerhead shark, Sphyrna mokarran, will help to protect this endangered species, scientists suggest. A target of both the recreational fishing and shark-fin trade, the global population of the instantly recognizable Great Hammerhead shark is estimated to have declined by ~80% over the last 25 years. The Great Hammerhead has been listed on the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) as endangered since 2007. It has also recently been included in CITES Appendix II, which regulates the international trade of threatened species. Despite recognition of its threatened status, effective protection and management has so far been hampered by a lack of information about the shark's behaviour. However, new research published in Frontiers in Marine Science, gives a ray of hope. By defining the sharks' use of particular areas, this study gives marine management and conservation officials the ability to limit the sharks' interaction with their greatest threat - humans. Importantly, this study looked at the temporal as well as the spatial aspect of the sharks' movements. Dr Tristan Guttridge, who led the study at the Bimini Biological Research Station, Bahamas, explains why this is so vital: "Knowing when the animals are likely to be in certain places will be critical in developing effective management strategies" he said. "For example, our data could be used to create so-called 'time-area closures', where certain areas are closed to particular activities, like fishing, at different times. The aim would be to reduce harmful interactions with the sharks". Dr Charlie Huveneers of the Southern Shark Ecology Group in Flinders University, Australia, agrees. "New information about movements of Great Hammerheads will help managers and regulators to ensure sustainable catches, and to improve international regulation and management" he said. "Thanks to the combination of methods used by the authors, the study has revealed complex movement patterns, with broad-scale migrations across jurisdictions as far North as Virginia, USA, as well as seasonal site fidelity in Florida and the Bahamas". The team of researchers tagged the sharks with both acoustic and satellite tags, and used photo identification and laser photogrammetry. They were able to observe return-migrations of over 3000km. They also discovered that the sharks came "home" after migrating away to find food, pup or mate, and that they returned to the same sites for up to five months. This type of predictable behaviour makes them particularly vulnerable to fisheries. "Recreational fishing in the USA is likely having quite an impact on great hammerheads" explains Guttridge. "We know that hammerheads are the third most common shark reported by Florida recreational fishing charter boats, and great hammerheads specifically are considered one of the most attractive species to catch by clients" he added. This study is the first to provide evidence that Great Hammerheads return to particular areas after migrations, rather than the perhaps more common perception of these sharks as "ocean wanderers". This discovery has great implications for marine management, and the development of MPAs (Marine Protected Areas). However, many challenges remain in securing a safe future for these sharks. Like these highly migratory animals, management strategies will need to cross jurisdictional and international borders in order to be effective. "We have only just scratched the surface of defining key spatial hotspots, but clearly for these highly mobile sharks, we need international cooperation" said Dr Guttridge, "and unfortunately, sharks refuse to acknowledge national boundaries". The implications of the temporal aspect of migrations will also need further investigation. The sharks will be more vulnerable at different times. "For our team, the next challenge is identifying what they are doing in these locations" said Guttridge, "as there are more sensitive life stages, such as pupping/mating sites that are a priority for conservation efforts".


News Article | November 17, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The illegal reptile trade, including venomous snakes, could put wildlife, the environment and human lives at risk, a new study has found. University of Adelaide researchers, supported by the Invasive Animals Co-operative Research Centre, have developed a model of the likelihood of establishment of alien species of snakes and other reptiles if they are introduced to the wild in Australia, accidentally or on purpose. The research has been published in the journal Conservation Letters. There is an existing legal trade in pet reptiles that are native to Australia, but alien reptiles cannot be legally imported or kept for private trade. In their analysis, based on 28 alien reptile species that had been seized by the Victorian Government during 1999-2012, the researchers showed that 5 out of the 28 (18%) were likely to succeed in becoming established in the wild. This could be as high as 12 out of 28 if there was at least three releases of the same species and no recapture or control. 10 out of the 28 species screened - all species seized from the black market ¬- were venomous snakes. "Since 1999 alien reptiles (including snakes and turtles) have been the most common animals intercepted by various border and on-shore controls," says lead author Pablo García-Díaz, a PhD candidate in the Invasion Ecology Group, University of Adelaide. "There is a thriving black market in reptiles in Australia and this illegal trade represents a serious challenge and risk to human and wildlife wellbeing." The researchers say the potential threat to wildlife and the environment should not be underestimated. "Illegal wildlife trade is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide," says Project leader Associate Professor Phill Cassey. "In the regions where the animals are being taken from, unsustainable harvesting levels are driving population declines. And in the regions where they are being introduced, the illegal trade represents a likely source of new alien species to disrupt the local ecosystems and, in the case of venomous snakes, pose a potential threat to humans." The researchers found that smaller reptiles and those released more often into the wild were more likely to establish self-sustaining populations. Dr Michelle Christy, National Incursion Response Facilitator for Invasive Animals CRC, is concerned by the number of reptiles being smuggled into Australia and what will happen if they are released into the wild. "Reptiles are particularly difficult to find, and the likelihood of eradicating an introduced population once it has established is very low," she says. "This very important emerging issue highlights the importance of incursion prevention, detection, and rapid response plans for introduced snakes."


News Article | November 17, 2016
Site: phys.org

University of Adelaide researchers, supported by the Invasive Animals Co-operative Research Centre, have developed a model of the likelihood of establishment of alien species of snakes and other reptiles if they are introduced to the wild, accidentally or on purpose. The research has been published in the journal Conservation Letters. There is an existing legal trade in pet reptiles that are native to Australia, but alien reptiles cannot be legally imported or kept for private trade. In their analysis, based on 28 alien reptile species that had been seized by the Victorian Government during 1999-2012, the researchers showed that 5 out of the 28 (18%) were likely to succeed in becoming established in the wild. This could be as high as 12 out of 28 if there was at least three releases of the same species and no recapture or control. 10 out of the 28 species screened – all species seized from the black market – were venomous snakes. "Since 1999 alien reptiles (including snakes and turtles) have been the most common animals intercepted by various border and on-shore controls," says lead author Pablo García-Díaz, a PhD candidate in the Invasion Ecology Group, University of Adelaide. "There is a thriving black market in reptiles in Australia and this illegal trade represents a serious challenge and risk to human and wildlife wellbeing." The researchers say the potential threat to wildlife and the environment should not be underestimated. "Illegal wildlife trade is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide," says Project leader Associate Professor Phill Cassey. "In the regions where the animals are being taken from, unsustainable harvesting levels are driving population declines. And in the regions where they are being introduced, the illegal trade represents a likely source of new alien species to disrupt the local ecosystems and, in the case of venomous snakes, pose a potential threat to humans." The researchers found that smaller reptiles and those released more often into the wild were more likely to establish self-sustaining populations. Dr Michelle Christy, National Incursion Response Facilitator for Invasive Animals CRC, is concerned by the number of reptiles being smuggled into Australia and what will happen if they are released into the wild. "Reptiles are particularly difficult to find, and the likelihood of eradicating an introduced population once it has established is very low," she says. "This very important emerging issue highlights the importance of incursion prevention, detection, and rapid response plans for introduced snakes." Explore further: Alien plants and animals drive native species to extinction More information: Pablo García-Díaz et al. The Illegal Wildlife Trade Is a Likely Source of Alien Species, Conservation Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1111/conl.12301


News Article | November 16, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

The illegal reptile trade in Australia, including venomous snakes, could put our wildlife, the environment and human lives at risk, a new study has found. University of Adelaide researchers, supported by the Invasive Animals Co-operative Research Centre, have developed a model of the likelihood of establishment of alien species of snakes and other reptiles if they are introduced to the wild, accidentally or on purpose. The research has been published in the journal There is an existing legal trade in pet reptiles that are native to Australia, but alien reptiles cannot be legally imported or kept for private trade. In their analysis, based on 28 alien reptile species that had been seized by the Victorian Government during 1999-2012, the researchers showed that 5 out of the 28 (18%) were likely to succeed in becoming established in the wild. This could be as high as 12 out of 28 if there was at least three releases of the same species and no recapture or control. 10 out of the 28 species screened – all species seized from the black market ­– were venomous snakes. “Since 1999 alien reptiles (including snakes and turtles) have been the most common animals intercepted by various border and on-shore controls,” says lead author Pablo García-Díaz, a PhD candidate in the Invasion Ecology Group, University of Adelaide. “There is a thriving black market in reptiles in Australia and this illegal trade represents a serious challenge and risk to human and wildlife wellbeing.” The researchers say the potential threat to wildlife and the environment should not be underestimated. “Illegal wildlife trade is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide,” says Project leader Associate Professor Phill Cassey. “In the regions where the animals are being taken from, unsustainable harvesting levels are driving population declines. And in the regions where they are being introduced, the illegal trade represents a likely source of new alien species to disrupt the local ecosystems and, in the case of venomous snakes, pose a potential threat to humans.” The researchers found that smaller reptiles and those released more often into the wild were more likely to establish self-sustaining populations. Dr Michelle Christy, National Incursion Response Facilitator for Invasive Animals CRC, is concerned by the number of reptiles being smuggled into Australia and what will happen if they are released into the wild. “Reptiles are particularly difficult to find, and the likelihood of eradicating an introduced population once it has established is very low,” she says. “This very important emerging issue highlights the importance of incursion prevention, detection, and rapid response plans for introduced snakes.” Images and captions: larger versions of these and other images available from [email protected]


News Article | November 19, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

The illegal reptile trade, including venomous snakes, could put wildlife, the environment and human lives at risk, a new study has found. University of Adelaide researchers in Australia, supported by the Invasive Animals Co-operative Research Centre, have developed a model of the likelihood of establishment of alien species of snakes and other reptiles if they are introduced to the wild, accidentally or on purpose. The research has been published in the journal Conservation Letters. There is an existing legal trade in pet reptiles that are native to Australia, but alien reptiles cannot be legally imported or kept for private trade. In their analysis, based on 28 alien reptile species that had been seized by the Victorian Government during 1999-2012, the researchers showed that 5 out of the 28 (18%) were likely to succeed in becoming established in the wild. This could be as high as 12 out of 28 if there was at least three releases of the same species and no recapture or control. 10 out of the 28 species screened -- all species seized from the black market ¬- were venomous snakes. "Since 1999 alien reptiles (including snakes and turtles) have been the most common animals intercepted by various border and on-shore controls," says lead author Pablo García-Díaz, a PhD candidate in the Invasion Ecology Group, University of Adelaide. "There is a thriving black market in reptiles in Australia and this illegal trade represents a serious challenge and risk to human and wildlife wellbeing." The researchers say the potential threat to wildlife and the environment should not be underestimated. "Illegal wildlife trade is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide," says Project leader Associate Professor Phill Cassey. "In the regions where the animals are being taken from, unsustainable harvesting levels are driving population declines. And in the regions where they are being introduced, the illegal trade represents a likely source of new alien species to disrupt the local ecosystems and, in the case of venomous snakes, pose a potential threat to humans." The researchers found that smaller reptiles and those released more often into the wild were more likely to establish self-sustaining populations. Dr Michelle Christy, National Incursion Response Facilitator for Invasive Animals CRC, is concerned by the number of reptiles being smuggled into Australia and what will happen if they are released into the wild. "Reptiles are particularly difficult to find, and the likelihood of eradicating an introduced population once it has established is very low," she says. "This very important emerging issue highlights the importance of incursion prevention, detection, and rapid response plans for introduced snakes."


News Article | November 28, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

PULLMAN, Wash. - As long as ecologists have studied temperate lakes, the winter has been their off-season. It's difficult, even dangerous, to look under the ice, and they figured plants, animals and algae weren't doing much in the dark and cold anyway. But an international team of 62 scientists looking at more than 100 lakes has concluded that life under the ice is vibrant, complex and surprisingly active. Their findings stand to complicate the understanding of freshwater systems just as climate change is warming lakes around the planet. "As ice seasons are getting shorter around the world, we are losing ice without a deep understanding of what we are losing," said Stephanie Hampton, a Washington State University professor and lead author of a study published in the journal Ecology Letters. "Food for fish, the chemical processes that affect their oxygen and greenhouse gas emissions will shift as ice recedes." "A lake doesn't go to sleep when it's covered with a blanket of ice and snow," said Liz Blood, program director in the National Science Foundation's Division of Environmental Biology, which funded the research. "While winter's lower temperatures and light levels may force lake life into a slower mode, algae and zooplankton are still abundant. "What will happen if lake ice cover decreases in warming temperatures?" she said. "These results are a significant step in understanding what may be far-reaching changes for lake ecosystems." Fresh water is fundamental to society. We use it for drinking, manufacturing, energy production, irrigation and fish - a particularly important protein source in the developing world. Global warming is expected to change what we value in fresh water, as a study co-authored by Hampton last year found lakes warming around the world. The new study finds that what happens in the winter can have a substantial effect on what happens during the rest of the year. This is especially true for lakes that let in a lot of sunlight, stimulating the growth of algae and zooplankton on the underside of the ice. These in turn serve as food sources for fish at the start of their growing season. "In some lakes where the ice is really clear and there's not very much snow cover, there can be a lot of photosynthesis and a lot of productivity," said Hampton, who has extensive experience studying Lake Baikal in Russia, the world's deepest lake. "So there were some lakes in this study where the productivity in winter actually exceeded the productivity you would see in summer." Hampton said her Russian colleagues have seen "a unique little microecosystem" under the ice, with filaments hanging down from the subsurface. "It's interesting to think about these lakes that get a lot of light through the ice," she said. "Russian researchers who spend a lot of time on Baikal remind us that when you get ice, now you've got a new habitat. It can be a vast habitat extending across the entire lake." Marine biologists have documented a key role of sea ice in supporting polar food webs. "Under sea ice, you see the growth of foods higher in beneficial fatty acids and contributions as high as 30 percent to overall annual productivity," said Oregon Institute of Marine Biology's Aaron Galloway, a coauthor who was a postdoctoral fellow at WSU when the study began. But until this study, freshwater scientists "were not able to make any sort of estimates like that at all," said Hampton. Investigations of frozen freshwater bodies were just too spotty. Indeed, the International Society of Limnology's Plankton Ecology Group, which has been highly influential in aquatic science, has developed a theoretical model of lakes incorporating the interplay of plankton, nutrients, temperatures and mixing. But in 2011 the group said, in effect, that winter was being overlooked.v "It was a pretty strong statement about how little we know about winter," said Hampton. So she and her fellow lake ecologists posted a request for data on a listserv of professional colleagues, expecting maybe 30 responses. They got 140 responses from researchers with measurements of various winter conditions, like plankton and nutrient levels, that could be compared to summer values. Their findings varied a lot, often depending on whether a lake was covered with clear ice or covered with snow that blocked most light. "In some cases, we know that zooplankton under ice are really important for seeding the populations that will take off in the summer and grow to be more abundant," said Hampton. In other cases, there may be algae consuming large amounts of nutrients under the ice so the summer algae have less for their own growth. Climate change stands to introduce another set of considerations. "A number of things are changing, with climate change, that actually affect the characteristics of the ice itself," Hampton said. The ice season can be shorter. There can be less snow, which will let in more light. Or there can be more rain during ice formation, making the ice cloudy. Predicting these changes, she said, "will not be straightforward." Regardless, lake scientists will need to break out their winter gear. "Overall, this study tells us that limnologists no longer have any off-season," Hampton said. "No more down time, especially as we're losing ice so rapidly."


News Article | September 1, 2016
Site: phys.org

Research by doctoral student Briar Taylor-Smith and her supervisors Professor Steven Trewick and Associate Professor Mary Morgan-Richard of the Massey Ecology Group have reported three new ground wētā species in the New Zealand Journal of Zoology. Two new species of ground wētā, which were previously classified as Hemiandrus maculifrons, have now been named Hemiandrus luna and Hemiandru brucei. A third species, related to the other two, has been named Hemiandrus nox. Hemiandrus luna and Hemiandrus nox were named after Roman goddesses and Hemiandru brucei (Bruce's wētā) is named for Taylor-Smith's grandfather and mentor. Ground wētā are found in native forest throughout the North and South Islands, as well as on numerous offshore islands. Most species of ground wētā have restricted ranges but the three new species are found on both main islands. Professor Trewick of the Institute of Agriculture and Environment says many species of wētā are abundant in New Zealand forests and other habitats, but a lot of these have yet to be described. "The similarity of these three species explains why they were previously treated as a single taxon, however, amongst New Zealand's wētā, ground wētā are the most poorly characterised and most in need of taxonomic and ecological work. Although ground wētā are common in many places we know little about them because they are only active at night." Additional taxonomic and ecological work on ground wētāis needed to test the reported diversity of this genus. Associate Professor Morgan-Richards says, "Taxonomy lies at the heart of species conservation and many large New Zealand orthopterans [order of insects] remain to be described." "Even in 2016, there are new species to discover and important diversity to describe. We cannot conserve an animal if we do not know it exists, which is why it is so important to begin conservation by documenting our biodiversity. "We can study the whakapapa of the species, and understand how they are related to one another, and use this information to provide the habitat the species needs to survive." New Zealand Anostostomatidae (true wētā) includes three main lineages: giant and tree wētā, tusked wētā, and ground wētā. Together, they comprise some 60 species that occupy diverse habitats from lowland forest to the alpine zone. A separate group, the Rhaphidophoridae or cave wētā, are also being studied by the Massey team. In related research, the mating calls of ground wētā have been recorded. Until recently it was not known that ground wētā communicated using sounds. These wētā do not have the 'ears' on their legs that many other wētā have, but it appears they use vibrations to signal to each other. The male ground wētā does this by rapidly drumming its body against the leaf it is standing on. The resulting sound is inaudible to humans but can be detected using a specialised sensor. Explore further: Lightweight and long-legged males go the distance for sex More information: BL Taylor-Smith et al. Three new ground wētā species and a redescription of, New Zealand Journal of Zoology (2016). DOI: 10.1080/03014223.2016.1205109


News Article | November 6, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A recent study published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports highlights a newly identified virus -- named Moku after the Hawaiian Island from which it was isolated -- in the invasive wasp, Vespula pensylvanica. The research also warns that transmission of these kinds of viruses, especially from invasive species which can spread viruses to new locations, is a threat to pollinator health worldwide. Particularly under threat are honey bees, which are as vital to our food systems as the crops they pollinate, and which are prone to a range of emergent diseases including Moku and Deformed wing virus (DWV). The Moku virus was identified through a collaboration of institutes with complementary expertise. Purnima Pachori of the Platforms & Pipelines Group at the Earlham Institute (EI) carried out the bioinformatics work of separating out host and viral genetic material, which allowed for the analysis and identification of the novel Moku virus led by Gideon Mordecai (based at the time at the Marine Biological Association (MBA), Plymouth). "It's brilliant that our computational biology expertise at EI could contribute to the characterisation of a new virus which can be a threat to pollinator health worldwide" said Purnima. It was through work at the MBA that the true uniqueness of the Moku virus revealed itself. Gideon Mordecai said, "The use of next generation gene sequencing techniques has led to a rapid increase in virus discovery, and is a powerful tool for investigating the enormous diversity of viruses out there." The study has highlighted the importance of monitoring invasive species for broad-range viruses as well as the potential for transmission of these pathogens. Dr Declan Schroeder, Head of the Virus Ecology Group at the MBA explains: "The true significance of this discovery lies in the potential ramifications that a new biological invasion could cause. Could we be seeing history repeating itself? Similar to the Spanish invasion of the Inca and Aztec empires in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it was the smallpox and measles viruses that inflicted the most damage on the individuals of these populous nations. Here we are seeing an invasive wasp bringing in a new virus to honey bees." The likelihood is that Moku has the ability to spread throughout the endemic population of honey bees in Hawaii. Gideon Mordecai concludes that "future challenges will be assessing the biological relevance of these novel pathogens and the role they play in the ecology of their hosts."


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: phys.org

Particularly under threat are honey bees, which are as vital to our food systems as the crops they pollinate, and which are prone to a range of emergent diseases including Moku and Deformed wing virus (DWV). The Moku virus was identified through a collaboration of institutes with complementary expertise. Purnima Pachori of the Platforms & Pipelines Group at the Earlham Institute (EI) carried out the bioinformatics work of separating out host and viral genetic material, which allowed for the analysis and identification of the novel Moku virus led by Gideon Mordecai (based at the time at the Marine Biological Association (MBA), Plymouth). "It's brilliant that our computational biology expertise at EI could contribute to the characterisation of a new virus which can be a threat to pollinator health worldwide" said Purnima. It was through work at the MBA that the true uniqueness of the Moku virus revealed itself. Gideon Mordecai said, "The use of next generation gene sequencing techniques has led to a rapid increase in virus discovery, and is a powerful tool for investigating the enormous diversity of viruses out there." The study has highlighted the importance of monitoring invasive species for broad-range viruses as well as the potential for transmission of these pathogens. Dr Declan Schroeder, Head of the Virus Ecology Group at the MBA explains: "The true significance of this discovery lies in the potential ramifications that a new biological invasion could cause. Could we be seeing history repeating itself? Similar to the Spanish invasion of the Inca and Aztec empires in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it was the smallpox and measles viruses that inflicted the most damage on the individuals of these populous nations. Here we are seeing an invasive wasp bringing in a new virus to honey bees." The likelihood is that Moku has the ability to spread throughout the endemic population of honey bees in Hawaii. Gideon Mordecai concludes that "future challenges will be assessing the biological relevance of these novel pathogens and the role they play in the ecology of their hosts." Explore further: New study reveals widespread risk of infectious diseases to wild bees

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