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Columbus, OH, United States

A new species of crayfish, Cambarus (Tubericambarus) stockeri, is described from northern Georgia and southern Tennessee within the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province of North America. Of the recognized members of the subgenus, it is the most physically divergent form discovered to date. It is easily distinguished from other recognized members of the subgenus, and all other members of the genus Cambarus Erichson 1846, by the extensive tuberculation of the chelae. Cambarus (T.) stockeri has tubercles over most of the dorsal and ventral chelae surface, a character state common in members of Procambarus Ortmann, 1905b. This new species was frequently found in association with Cambarus (T.) acanthura, Hobbs, 1981 and Cambarus (Depressicambarus) cymatilis, Hobbs, 1970 and shares a close zoogeographic association with the latter species. © Biological Society of Washington. Source

Seufferheld M.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Kim K.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Kim K.M.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Whitfield J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 2 more authors.
Biology Direct | Year: 2011

Background: Volutin granules appear to be universally distributed and are morphologically and chemically identical to acidocalcisomes, which are electron-dense granular organelles rich in calcium and phosphate, whose functions include storage of phosphorus and various metal ions, metabolism of polyphosphate, maintenance of intracellular pH, osmoregulation and calcium homeostasis. Prokaryotes are thought to differ from eukaryotes in that they lack membrane-bounded organelles. However, it has been demonstrated that as in acidocalcisomes, the calcium and polyphosphate-rich intracellular "volutin granules (polyphosphate bodies)" in two bacterial species, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Rhodospirillum rubrum, are membrane bound and that the vacuolar proton-translocating pyrophosphatases (V-H+PPases) are present in their surrounding membranes. Volutin granules and acidocalcisomes have been found in organisms as diverse as bacteria and humans.Results: Here, we show volutin granules also occur in Archaea and are, therefore, present in the three superkingdoms of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya). Molecular analyses of V-H+PPase pumps, which acidify the acidocalcisome lumen and are diagnostic proteins of the organelle, also reveal the presence of this enzyme in all three superkingdoms suggesting it is ancient and universal. Since V-H+PPase sequences contained limited phylogenetic signal to fully resolve the ancestral nodes of the tree, we investigated the divergence of protein domains in the V-H+PPase molecules. Using Protein family (Pfam) database, we found a domain in the protein, PF03030. The domain is shared by 31 species in Eukarya, 231 in Bacteria, and 17 in Archaea. The universal distribution of the V-H+PPase PF03030 domain, which is associated with the V-H+PPase function, suggests the domain and the enzyme were already present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA).Conclusion: The importance of the V-H+PPase function and the evolutionary dynamics of these domains support the early origin of the acidocalcisome organelle. In particular, the universality of volutin granules and presence of a functional V-H+PPase domain in the three superkingdoms of life reveals that the acidocalcisomes may have appeared earlier than the divergence of the superkingdoms. This result is remarkable and highlights the possibility that a high degree of cellular compartmentalization could already have been present in the LUCA.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Anthony Poole, Lakshminarayan Iyer and Daniel Kahn. © 2011 Seufferheld et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Harder J.D.,Ecology and Organismal Biology | Kotheimer J.K.,Ecology and Organismal Biology | Hamilton I.M.,Ecology and Organismal Biology | Hamilton I.M.,Ohio State University
Northeastern Naturalist | Year: 2014

The goal of this study was to obtain information on diversity, abundance, and distribution of non-volant small mammals in 4 major habitat types in each of 5 regions of Ohio. We trapped in 31 study areas, representing 39 counties, for 3 consecutive nights for a total of 38,400 trap nights. We established eight 100-m transects (each with 10 live traps, 20 snap traps, and 20 pitfall traps) per study area in woodland, oldfield, grassland-pasture, or restored prairie-wetland habitats. We captured fourteen species of small mammals (shrews and rodents <100 g in body mass), but 97% of the 2150 captured consisted of just 4 species: Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Vole; 31%), Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse; 29%), Blarina brevicauda (Short-tailed Shrew; 21%), and Sorex cinereus (Masked Shrew; 16%). Regional differences in abundance of small mammals (captures/100 trap nights) and species diversity (H') were not significant (P > 0.05). Seven species of interest were captured in low numbers (<10) and 2 others, Reithrodontomys humulis (Eastern Harvest Mouse) and Myodes gapperi (Red-backed Vole), were not captured in the course of the 2-year study. © AlphaMed Press 2014. Source

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