Ecological systems theory, also called development in context or human ecology theory, identifies five environmental systems with which an individual interacts. This theory provides the framework from which community psychologists study the relationships with individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society. Ecological systems theory was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 9, 2017

The global biopesticides market reached $2.1 billion in 2014, and further it is expected to reach $5.3 billion in 2020 with a CAGR (2015 to 2020) of 16.7%. North America dominated the global biopesticides market. Europe is expected to be the fastest growing market in the near future owing to the stringent regulation for pesticides and increasing demand from organic products. Bayer Corpscience AG BASF SE, Dow Chemicals Monsanto Syngenta Dupont and others. Global Market for Biopesticides, 2020" discusses the following aspects of global Biopesticides market: Global Biopesticides market size, share & forecast Segmental analysis of Biopesticides, by region, end user industry by type and components Competitive vendor’s landscape and company SWOT analysis. Table Of Contents Chapter: One 10 Introduction 10 Objectives 10 Scope 10 Data Sources 10 Disclaimer 10 Chapter: Two 11 Summary 11 Chapter: Three Overview 13 Need Of Biopesticide 13 Advantages Of Biopesticdes 13 Disadvantages Of Biopestcides 14 Biopesticides By Types 14 Bioinsecticides 14 Biofungicides 16 Bioherbicides 17 Bionematicides 17 Others 18 Biopesticides By Application 18 Seed Treatment 18 Soil Treatment 18 Post-Harvest 18 Others 18 Biopesticides By Crop Type 18 Types Of Biopesticides By Active Ingredients 18 Microbial Biopesticides 19 Bacterial 19 Viral 19 Fungal 19 Others 19 Biochemical Biopesticides 19 Plant-Incorporated Protectants (Pip) 19 Biopesticides Based On Active Formulation 20 Chapter: Four 21 Global Biopesticides Market 21 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides 21 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides, By Type 21 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides, By Applications 24 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides, By Crop Type 26 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides, By Active Ingredients 28 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides, By Type Of Microbials 30 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Based On Active Formulation 32 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides, By Region 34 Global Market Forecast For Bioinsecticides, By Region 36 Global Market Forecast For Biofungicides, By Region 38 Global Market Forecast For Bioherbicides, By Region 40 Global Market Forecast For Bionematicides, By Region 42 Global Market Forecast For Other Types Of Biopesticides, By Region 44 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Used In Seed Treatment, By Region 46 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Used In Soil Treatment, By Region 48 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Used Post¬Harvest, By Region 50 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Used In Other Applications, By Region 52 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Used In Grains And Oilseeds, By Region 54 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Used In Fruits And Vegetables, By Region 56 Global Market Forecast For Biopesticides Used In Other Crop Types, By Region 58 Global Market Forecast For Microbial Biopesticides, By Region 60 Global Market Forecast For Biochemical Biopesticides, By Region 62 Global Market Forecast For Plant Incorporated Protectant (Pip) Biopesticides, By Region 64 Chapter: Five 66 Drivers And Challenges 66 Modernisation In Agriculture 66 Prsently Used Agricultural Technologies 66 Improved Seeds 66 Inorganic Fertilizers 66 Organic Fertilizers 66 Chemical Biocides (Herbicides, Insecticides And Pesticides) 67 Biopesticides 67 Irrigation 67 Farm Machinery 67 Rising Production, Consumption And Yield 68 Upcoming Agricultural Technologies 71 Air & Soil Sensors 71 Equipment Telematics Sensors 71 Livestock Biometrics Sensors 71 Crop Sensors 72 Infrastructural Health Sensors 72 Variable Rate Swath Control 72 Rapid Iteration Selective Breeding 72 Agricultural Robots (Agbots) 72 Precision Agriculture 72 Robotic Farm Swarms 72 Closed Ecological Systems 73 Synthetic Biology 73 Vertical Farming 73 For more information, please visit

Dyukarev E.A.,Ecological Systems
Earth's Cryosphere | Year: 2015

Peculiarities of the regime of seasonally-frozen layer of soil are described using Bakchar (Tomsk oblast) meteorological station daily records for 1963-2011. Relations between seasonally-frozen layer, air temperature and snow cover characteristics are given.

Hellweg S.,Ecological Systems | Canals L.M.I.,Sustainable Consumption and Production
Science | Year: 2014

In the modern economy, international value chains - production, use, and disposal of goods - have global environmental impacts. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to track these impacts and assess them from a systems perspective, identifying strategies for improvement without burden shifting. We review recent developments in LCA, including existing and emerging applications aimed at supporting environmentally informed decisions in policy-making, product development and procurement, and consumer choices. LCA constitutes a viable screening tool that can pinpoint environmental hotspots in complex value chains, but we also caution that completeness in scope comes at the price of simplifications and uncertainties. Future advances of LCA in enhancing regional detail and accuracy as well as broadening the assessment to economic and social aspects will make it more relevant for producers and consumers alike.

Wagg C.,Ecological Systems | Wagg C.,University of Zürich | Jansa J.,ETH Zurich | Stadler M.,Ecological Systems | And 2 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2011

There is a great interest in ecology in understanding the role of soil microbial diversity for plant productivity and coexistence. Recent research has shown increases in species richness of mutualistic soil fungi, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to be related to increases in aboveground productivity of plant communities. However, the impact of AMF richness on plant-plant interactions has not been determined. Moreover, it is unknown whether species-rich AMF communities can act as insurance to maintain productivity in a fluctuating environment (e.g., upon changing soil conditions). We tested the impact of four different AMF taxa and of AMF diversity (no AMF, single AMF taxa, and all four together) on competitive interactions between the legume Trifolium pratense and the grass Lolium multiflorum grown under two different soil conditions of low and high sand content. We hypothesized that more diverse mutualistic interactions (e.g., when four AMF taxa are present) can ease competitive effects between plants, increase plant growth, and maintain plant productivity across different soil environments. We used quantitative PCR to verify that AMF taxa inoculated at the beginning of the experiment were still present at the end. The presence of AMF reduced the competitive inequality between the two plant species by reducing the growth suppression of the legume by the grass. High AMF richness enhanced the combined biomass production of the two plant species and the yield of the legume, particularly in the more productive soil with low sand content. In the less productive (high sand content) soil, the single most effective AMF had an equally beneficial effect on plant productivity as the mixture of four AMF. Since contributions of single AMF to plant productivity varied between both soils, higher AMF richness would be required to maintain plant productivity in heterogeneous environments. Overall this work shows that AMF diversity promotes plant productivity and that AMF diversity can act as insurance to sustain plant productivity under changing environmental conditions. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Wagg C.,Ecological Systems | Wagg C.,University of Zürich | Jansa J.,ETH Zurich | Schmid B.,University of Zürich | And 2 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

Soil microbes play key roles in ecosystems, yet the impact of their diversity on plant communities is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the diversity of belowground plant-associated soil fungi promotes plant productivity and plant coexistence. Using additive partitioning of biodiversity effects developed in plant biodiversity studies, we demonstrate that this positive relationship can be driven by complementarity effects among soil fungi in one soil type and by a selection effect resulting from the fungal species that stimulated plant productivity the most in another soil type. Selection and complementarity effects among fungal species contributed to improving plant productivity up to 82% and 85%, respectively, above the average of the respective fungal species monocultures depending on the soil in which they were grown. These results also indicate that belowground diversity may act as insurance for maintaining plant productivity under differing environmental conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Kazinski P.O.,Tomsk State University | Shipulya M.A.,Ecological Systems
Annals of Physics | Year: 2011

Rapidly convergent expansions of a one-loop contribution to the partition function of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law are derived. The omega-potential is naturally decomposed into three parts: the quasiclassical contribution, the contribution from the branch cut of the dispersion law, and the oscillating part. The low- and high-temperature expansions of the quasiclassical part are obtained. An explicit expression and a relation of the contribution from the cut with the Casimir term and vacuum energy are established. The oscillating part is represented in the form of the Chowla-Selberg expansion of the Epstein zeta function. Various resummations of this expansion are considered. The general procedure developed is then applied to two models: massless particles in a box both at zero and nonzero chemical potential, and electrons in a thin metal film. Rapidly convergent expansions of the partition function and average particle number are obtained for these models. In particular, the oscillations of the chemical potential of conduction electrons in graphene and a thin metal film due to a variation of size of the crystal are described. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Kharyutkina E.V.,Ecological Systems | Ippolitov I.I.,Ecological Systems | Loginov S.V.,Ecological Systems
Biogeosciences | Year: 2012

The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and heat balance elements is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45-80°N, 60-180°E) using JRA-25, NCEP/DOE AMIP-II reanalysis data and observational data for the period of global warming 1979-2008. It is shown that temperature trend over the territory is 1.4 °C for the period under study according to reanalysis data. Since the beginning of 90s of 20th century the increase of back earth-atmosphere shortwave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover distribution and downward shortwave radiation at the surface. Regression model describing temperature variability with variability of heat balance elements was presented. We conclude that possible applications for the model include the convenient estimate of temperature variability according to reanalysis data. © Author(s) 2012.

Nevidimova O.,Ecological Systems
11th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference and EXPO - Modern Management of Mine Producing, Geology and Environmental Protection, SGEM 2011 | Year: 2011

In the article is shown the approach to a research on hydropower resources in Western Siberia. The hydropower potential estimates are based on the following factors: water content of rivers, river slopes and flow velocities. Identified are the portions of rivers with largest energy capacity and the possibility to use hydro potential. A measure of hydrological tension was calculated, which takes into account the quantitative characteristics of following factors: low water, ice effects, high water, sediments runoff (amount of transported sediment), snowmelt runoff intensity. Based on these calculations, the territory was ranked by the degree of hydrological hazards. © SGEM2011 All Rights Reserved by the International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM.

Ecological Systems | Date: 2013-10-25

The present invention relates to an aquaponics system and method. There is provided an aquaponics system including a tank (10) for housing at least one aquatic animal species; a plant growing apparatus (18) for housing one or more plant species growing in an aqueous environment; and a biofilter module including a solids removal means (12) and a biological waste digestion unit (14) including a biological species for digesting solids to produce plant nutrients. Plant nutrients are transferred to the plant growing apparatus (18) and at least a portion of the water is returned to the tank (10).

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