Entity

Time filter

Source Type

West Kelowna, Canada

Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2011

Gas phase (298.15 K, 101.325 kPa) adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) were calculated for 236 organic compounds with the Gaussian-4 (G4) composite method and for 17 molecules at the W1BD level of theory. Functional group types considered span a range of mono- and polyfunctionalized halogenated, saturated and unsaturated, cyclic and acyclic, and heteroatom (N, O, S) substituted moieties without substantial conformational complexity. Excellent agreement was found using both computational methods against available experimental data. Approximately equivalent AIE prediction accuracy was observed between the G4 and the W1BD methods. For compounds with well-constrained experimental AIEs, both levels of theory provide effective chemical accuracy. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010

A set of 543 ionizable commercial organic compounds with various acid/base functionalities and experimental octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log Kow) were obtained from the Canadian Domestic Substances List. Corresponding pH-dependent octanol-water distribution coefficients (log D ow) and air-water partitioning coeffients (log Kaw,eff ) were estimated using the SPARC software program, as were log Kow and log K aw values for the neutral forms of each chemical. Significant ionization dependent effects on chemical screening results at various pH values were obtained using established criteria for bioaccumulation potential (BAP) in aquatic organisms, terrestrial animals, and humans, as well as for atmospheric long range transport potential (LRTP). Future modelling efforts for environmental and toxicological screening of commercial chemicals should therefore explicitly include the influence of ionization for both weak and strong organic acids and bases on bioavailability and air-water mobility within the respective regulatory frameworks. Functional group specific sorption of both ionizable and neutral compounds to particulate and dissolved inorganic and organic matter will also affect chemical screening results for BAP and LRTP. More complex sorption related modelling in various types of representative aquatic systems also appears necessary to achieve reliable chemical screening results for commercial organic compounds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed to predict the congener specific ryanodine receptor type RyR1 activity of all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. A three-variable QSAR equation was obtained via stepwise forward linear regression on an unsupervised forward selection reduced data set from an initial database. Application of the QSAR towards predicting EC2x values for all 209 PCB congeners indicated good agreement in substitution pattern trends between the experimental and estimated data sets. The QSAR model predicts a less than two-fold increase in maximal potency among all congeners outside the experimental database, and it appears that no high-potency PCB congeners with EC2x values much less than 0.2 μM exist. Increasing RyR1-neuro toxicity equivalents with increasing homologue number and Aroclor chlorination likely reflect indirect molecular controls on toxicity, since congeners with multiple ortho substituentsthe primary structural feature controlling a lack of coplanarity and resulting neurotoxicityare more likely to be found in higher homologues. Source


Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010

The SPARC software program aqueous pKa prediction module was validated against corresponding experimental acidity constants for chlorinated and brominated phenols and the limited experimental aqueous pKa data sets for monohydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH-PCDEs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). pKa values were then estimated for all 837 monohydroxylated mono- through nona-halogenated congeners in each of the OH-PCB, OH-PCDE, and OH-PBDE classes, as well as for the monohydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), giving a total of 3348 compounds. Large intrahomolog pKa variation by up to six units is expected within each contaminant class, with pKa values ranging from about 4 to 11 dependent on the degree and pattern of halogenation. Increasing halogenation generally decreased the average pKa within each homolog group. Significant intrahomolog differences in pKa values exist between OH-PCB, OH-PBB, OH-PCDE, and OH-PBDE congeners, including large acidity constant variation between isomers with equivalent halogenation patterns but varying location of the hydroxy moiety. Congener specific pH dependent investigations into the partitioning and degradation behaviors of these compounds are necessary, including greater consideration of analyte ionization effects during their extraction and analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Rayne S.,Ecologica Research | Forest K.,Okanagan College
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2010

Temperature-dependent rate constants were estimated for the acid- and base-catalyzed and neutral hydrolysis reactions of perfluorinated telomer acrylates (FTAcrs) and phosphate esters (FTPEs), and the SN1 and SN2 hydrolysis reactions of fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs). Under some environmental conditions, hydrolysis of monomeric FTAcrs could be rapid (half-lives of several years in marine systems and as low as several days in some landfills) and represent a dominant portion of their overall degradation. Abiotic hydrolysis of monomeric FTAcrs may be a significant contributor to current environmental loadings of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Polymeric FTAcrs are expected to be hydrolyzed more slowly, with estimated half-lives in soil and natural waters ranging between several centuries to several millenia absent additional surface area limitations on reactivity. Poor agreement was found between the limited experimental data on FTPE hydrolysis and computational estimates, requiring more detailed experimental data before any further modeling can occur on these compounds or their perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanol phosphate ester (PFSamPE) analogs. FTIs are expected to have hydrolytic half-lives of about 130 days in most natural waters, suggesting they may be contributing to substantial FTOH and PFCA inputs in aquatic systems. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFSams) appear unlikely to undergo abiotic hydrolysis at the S-N, C-S, or N-C linkages under environmentally relevant conditions, although potentially facile S-N hydrolysis via intramolecular catalysis by ethanol and acetic acid amide substituents warrants further investigation. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Discover hidden collaborations