Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef

El Kef, Tunisia

Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef

El Kef, Tunisia
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Mathlouthi N.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef | Auclair E.,Lesaffre Feed Additives | Larbier M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness in broiler chicken of the yeast cell walls obtained after cytoplasm extraction, acidification and drying. A total of seven hundred and fifty 1-day-old male broilers were assigned to 6 treatments: the basal diet (T), the basal diet supplemented with either Avilamycine (AB) or yeast cell walls dried by atomisation and used at two rates: 500 or 1000 mg/kg of diet (PAB and PAH, respectively) or dried by hot cylinder and incorporated at two levels: 500 or 1000 mg/kg of diet (PCB and PCH, respectively).Throughout the trial period (1 - 42 days), the body weight (p < 0.01) of chickens fed T diet which was 2.130 kg was increased by 116 g (+5.4%) when the chicken fed PCB diet. The Avilamycine addition improved body weight of chicken by 6.2 % compared to T diet. The feed: gain ratio recorded in chickens fed T diet was 1.974. AB and PCB diets improved feed: gain ratio by 7.1 % and 9.3 to 10 %, respectively compared to control treatment. Growth performances of broiler chickens obtained with yeast cell wall dried by atomisation were smaller than those dried by hot cylinder. The effects of yeast cell wall doses (500 or 1000 mg/kg of diet) on body weight or weight gain was not significant. Moreover, yeast cell wall (PCB group) and Avilamycine addition in the diet reduced mortality rate (0.8 %) compared to T (6.4 %). In conclusion, the yeast cell walls can substitute growth promoter antibiotics because they allow the same performances in broiler chickens. Furthermore, it is important to specify the mechanisms of action of yeast cell walls.


Mahouachi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef | Atti N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourragres | Hajji H.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourragres | Hajji H.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunis
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5kg of hay and 0.4kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5kg of hay and 0.4kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260gCP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485ml for Control group and 407ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones. © 2012 M. Mahouachi et al.


Atti N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Methlouthi N.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef | Saidi C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mahouachi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2013

Effects of extruded linseed incorporation on meat quality and intramuscular fat fatty acids (FAs) composition were studied on 36 lambs from Tunisian local breed, Queue Fine de l'Ouest. All lambs were male with an average body weight of 21.3 kg at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were divided into three groups of 12 lambs each, receiving hay ad-libitum and one of three concentrates containing 0 (Control), 15 (L15) and 30 (L30) per cent of extruded linseed. At the end of the experiment which lasted for 85 days, all the lambs were slaughtered. Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle were taken for meat quality measurements and FA determination. No effects of linseed on lamb growth were observed. The cooking loss, meat pH and colour parameters were similar for all diets. Linseed supplementation increased protein content (p=0.07) and decreased fat content (p=0.06) in the meat. However, the intramuscular FA composition was affected by linseed supplementation. The polyunsaturated FA to saturated FA ratio (PUFA/SFA) was higher for L15 and L30 groups than for Control (p<0.01). The content of C18:3 and the sum of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were higher for L15 and L30 groups than for Control one (p<0.05). PUFA n-3 contents significantly increased with linseed incorporation (0.70, 3.56 and 3.26 for Control, L15 and L30, respectively). In contrast, n-6:n-3 ratio significantly decreased from 5.23 for Control to 0.71 and 1.1 for L15 and L30, respectively. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Mathlouthi N.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef | Ballet N.,Lesaffre Feed Additives | Larbier M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2011

This study was performed with broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of adding beta-glucanase on bird performances and digestive organs weights. A total of 1600 1-day-old broilers (Arbor Acres) were divided into 2 groups and fed either a control diet (group C) based on corn, wheat and barley or a control diet supplemented with beta-glucanase preparation (Safizym GP 40, Lesaffre Feed Additives, France) at the dose of 40 mg per kg of diet (group G). Body weight, feed intake were recorded at 40 days of age. The same day, 8 chickens from each group were slaughtered for carcass yield and digestive organs weights. Experimental data were statistically analyzed by using the ANOVA procedure of Stat View programme. Throughout the whole trial period (1-40 days of age), body weight was significantly (p≤0.05) increased (+2.9%) in birds of group G (1723 g) compared to those of group C (1674 g). Moreover, there was no significant difference in feed intake between broilers consuming the control diet supplemented or not with beta-glucanase activity (4052 g). However, the feed conversion ratio was significantly reduced by 4% when the basal diet was supplemented with beta-glucanase (p≤0.05). The addition of beta-glucanase reduced (p<0.05) the small intestine weight related to the body weight compared to C group (5.40 vs.6.98%, respectively). Thus, it is possible to introduce in the broiler diet up to 35% of barley when beta-glucanase is used at the recommended dose of 40 mg per kg of diet. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.


Atti N.,Laboratoire Of Productions Animales Et Fourrageres | Mahouachi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

This review summarises the main factors that influence meat production and quality in fat-tailed Barbarine (FTB) lambs. As a general feature, FTB lamb's growth is moderate, and the average daily gain ranges between 100 and 350 g. The carcass being relatively fatty, carcass fat content varies from 10% to 32%; white fat and rose meat are often dominant in these carcasses. The meat fatty acid profile of this fat-tailed breed is similar to that of thin-tailed ones, with a prevalence of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. The order of dissected adipose tissues accumulation, estimated by allometry coefficients, is in agreement with observations in thin-tailed sheep. However, tail fat allometry coefficient is closer to kidney fat values rather than to the subcutaneous one. Concerning effects of feed level, growth of FTB lambs fed silage is higher than those fed oat hay. With moderate concentrate supply, FTB lambs' growth is more pronounced on pasture diet than on the feedlot (FL) diet. Furthermore, at similar slaughter weights, carcasses of lambs fed pasture diet have less tail and carcass fat than those from lambs fed FL diet (5% and 18% vs. 9% and 24% for grazing and FL lambs, respectively). No difference in fat colour, fat firmness or cooked meat flavour is observed between carcasses obtained at different slaughtering weight (i.e. from 25 to 35 kg). The tail docking of FTB improved lambs' growth particularly before weaning. Its effect on carcass composition and fat proportion depends on stage of slaughtering and type of fattening diet. For suckled lambs (4 months), the docking resulted in the lower carcass fat weight (and proportion), while for fattened lambs, carcass composition was similar for all types of lambs. Overall, FTB lambs always grow slower than Noire de Thibar lambs. This is particularly pronounced during the fattening phase. Then, for FTB breed, the possibilities to obtain heavy carcasses are at risks of fat accumulation, 22.8% vs. 14.4% for FTB and Noire de Thibar thin-tailed lambs, respectively. However, the main advantage of FTB breed is that adults are well adapted to food scarcity and may produce lambs even under harsh conditions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Jemai I.,University of Tunis | Ben Aissa N.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Ben Guirat S.,University of Tunis | Ben-Hammouda M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef | Gallali T.,University of Tunis
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2012

Conservation agriculture based on no-tillage (CA/NT) becomes a current tendency to enhance crop productivity by improving: (i) soil quality, (ii) water management and (iii) organic supply. In Tunisia, the applicability of CA was poorly documented. This study was carried out to evaluate changes in soil organic matter (SOM) and water properties generated by seven (NT7) and three (NT3) years of applying NT as compared to conventional tillage (CT). On three adjacent large plots, a field experiment was established since the growing season 2000/01 under rain-fed conditions on a clay loam soil in a dry subhumid zone of North Tunisia. In NT3 plot, a cultivation of wheat/fava bean sequence was investigated and residues biomass of 500kgha -1 and 450kgha -1 were left on the soil surface for wheat and fava bean, respectively. In NT7 plot, a cultivation of wheat/sulla sequence was investigated and residues biomass of 500kgha -1 and 700kgha -1 were left on the soil surface for wheat and sulla, respectively. However for the CT plot, a moldboard plowing at approximately 20cm depth was managed for continuous wheat production. The selected key parameters evaluated for a 0-30cm soil profile were SOM, bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), macro-porosity (MP), micro-porosity (mP), soil water retention at field capacity (FC) and at permanent wilting point (PWP), available water content (AWC) and soil moisture content (SMC).NT7 have increased significantly (p< 0.05) levels of SOM at the top 30. cm soil layer, which in turn enhanced BD and TP of soil as compared to CT. However, improvement of these parameters was restricted to 0-10. cm layer with NT3. Both NT3 and NT7 have increased considerably (p< 0.05) mP at 0-30. cm thereby increasing soil water content at FC and PWP, whereas MP was remarkably reduced by NT treatments as compared to CT but reduction was less important in NT7 plot. AWC was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in NT7 across the 30. cm profile while NT3 and CT have similar effect to each other. SMC was improved at different soil depths by NT system during the whole agricultural season and the highest content was found with NT3. Soil moisture values increased with increasing soil depth in both NT3 and NT7 indicating a good water infiltration induced by these treatments. Hence, water storage properties in rooting zone could be enhanced by NT7 and NT3 but water availability for plants was more important with NT7. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Jemai I.,University of Tunis | Ben Aissa N.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Ben Guirat S.,University of Tunis | Ben-Hammouda M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef | Gallali T.,University of Tunis
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

In semiarid areas, low and erratic rainfall, together with the intensive agricultural use of soils, has depleted soil organic carbon and degraded the soil's chemical, biological and physical fertility. To develop efficient soil-management practices for the rapid restoration of severely degraded soils, no-till, mulch-based cropping systems have been adopted. Thus, a study was conducted on a farm to evaluate the effect of a no-tillage system (NT) versus conventional tillage (CT) on the vertical (0-50 cm) distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), structural instability (SI), stable aggregates and infiltration coefficient (Ks) in a clay loam soil under rain-fed conditions in a semiarid region of north-western Tunisia. CT consisting of moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm was used for continuous wheat production. NT by direct drilling under residue was used for 3 (NT3) and 7 (NT7) years in wheat/fava bean and wheat/sulla crop rotations, respectively. SOC was more significantly increased (p < 0.05) by NT3 and NT7 than by CT at respective depths of 0-10 and 0-20 cm, but a greater increase in the uppermost 10 cm of soil was observed in the NT7 field. NT3 management decreased BD and consequently increased TP at a depth of 0-10 cm. The same trend was observed for the NT7 treatment at a depth of 0-30 cm. Ks was not affected by the NT3 treatment but was improved at a depth of 0-30 cm by the NT7 treatment. Changes in BD, TP and Ks in the NT7 plot were significant only in the first 10 cm of the soil. Both NT3 and NT7 considerably reduced SI (p < 0.1) and enhanced stable aggregates (p < 0.05) across the soil profile. These differences were most pronounced under NT7 at a depth of 0-10 cm. The stratification ratio (SR) of the selected soil properties, except that of SI, showed significant differences between the CT and NT trials, indicating an improvement in soil quality. NT management in the farming systems of north-western Tunisia was demonstrated in this study to improve soil quality, especially in the surface layers, by increasing storage of organic carbon and enhancing the physical properties of the soil. These effects were most pronounced in the long term. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Melki M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef | Marouani A.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef
Environmental Chemistry Letters | Year: 2010

The effects of irradiation with low doses (0, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) of radioactive cobalt (60Co) γ rays on seed germination, shoot and epicotyl growth of hard wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) were investigated under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Irradiated wheat seeds kept their germination speed and capacity levels compared to the control. However, improvements of +18 and +32% were, respectively obtained in root number and root length at the 20-Gy dose. Moreover, the 20-Gy-irradiation dose generated an increase of +33% in epicotyl length. The 20-Gy-irradiation dose improved the root length by +32% and root number by +75% in plants grown on liquid medium. A lower root length increase of +23% was obtained with the same treatment under glasshouse growing conditions. These results show that the in depth development stimulation of hard wheat roots following gamma ray treatment may be used for drought control. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Ouertatani S.,University of Carthage | Regaya K.,University of Carthage | Ryan J.,International enter for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas | Gharbi A.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2011

Faba beans (Vicia faba L) are grown in northern Tunisia where annual rainfall approaches 1200 mm and where the soil acidity is the most limiting factor for plant growth. Aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) toxicities provide a hostile environment to root growth. To alleviate such a problem, farmers use selected acid-tolerant species. However, crop yields remain far below their optimal levels. Liming, a practice to eliminate acidity, has never been tried in this area before. This research aimed to evaluate the impact of lime and mineral fertilizers on root nodulation, plant uptake and yield of faba beans using a pot experiment. Treatments were combinations of two rates of calcium carbonate with three rates of superphosphate and three rates of potassium sulfate. Liming produced significantly higher number and weight of nodules on roots as well as higher nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in plant tissue. Liming also increased shoot growth and bean yield Taylor & Francis Group.


PubMed | Ecole Superieure dAgriculture du Kef
Type: | Journal: TheScientificWorldJournal | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kids growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5kg of hay and 0.4kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5kg of hay and 0.4kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260gCP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485ml for Control group and 407ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones.

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