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Zahed N.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Hosni K.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Ben Brahim N.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunis Inrat | Kallel M.,University of Sfax | Sebei H.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2010

Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of the essential oils of leaves and fruits of the ornamental Shinus molle L. were reported and their allelopathic effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative differences between fruit and leaf oils were observed. Both oils were rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons and the major constituents were limonene and β-phellendrene (35.9-65.4%), α-phellendrene (24.3-20.1%), myrcene (12.8-7.7%) and α-pinene (5.9-1.7%) for fruits and leaves, respectively. Both essential oils showed a dose-dependent allelopathic activity on wheat germination and radicle elongation with leaf oil being the more phytotoxic. © 2010 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Hosni K.,Institute Superieur des Etudes Preparatoires Biologie Geologie | Zahed N.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Chrif R.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Abid I.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The peel essential oils from four selected Tunisian Citrus species: sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco); sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck), cultivated under the same pedoclimatic and cultural conditions have been analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils content ranged from 1.06% to 4.62% (w/w) in pummelo and mandarin, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 70 components in all oil samples. The analysed oils consist mainly in monoterpene hydrocarbons (97.59-99.3%), with limonene (92.52-97.3%) and β-pinene (1.37-1.82) being the major constituents. The remaining chemical classes were weakly represented (<1%). Both qualitative and quantitative differences between oil samples have been observed and numerous components have been proposed as marker compounds. Since the influence of different environmental factors has been eliminated, the observed chemical variability between the studied species and cultivars seems likely to results from the genetic variability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Hosni K.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physicochimique Chimique | Hassen I.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique | M'Rabet Y.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physicochimique Chimique | Sebei H.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Casabianca H.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2013

Volatile oil constituents of Tunisian sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cv. Meski (MES), Valencia Late (VAL), Thomson Navel (THN) and Maltaise Blanc (MAB); mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco); sour orange (Citrus aurantium L. cv. Amara (AM)) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) combined with a flame ionisation detector (FID) and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 41 components accounting for more than 95% of the total essential oils were identified, and oxygenated monoterpenes (69.5-99.9%) were found as the most prominent fraction in all oil samples. The main constituents were linalool (3.1-73%), isoborneol (0-55.8%) and tepinen-4-ol (1.1-19.2%). A high degree of inter-and intraspecific chemical variability between species and cultivars was found to be genetically determined, and a set of distinctive traits (chemical markers) in the essential oils profile was established. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of all identified components grouped the oils into two main chemotypes (linalool/isoborneol and isoborneol/linalool). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Chebil A.,Institute National Of Recherches En Genie Rural | Frija A.,Ghent University | Abdelkafi B.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne
Agricultural Economics Review | Year: 2012

This study aims to measure the farm specific irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), through non parametric DEA model; and to evaluate the potential irrigation cost reductions and the main factors causing variations in IWUE among a sample of irrigated farms in Tunisia. Cross sectional data collected from a sample of 75 farms participating in the the WaDImena project in nadhour region (northern Tunisia) was used. The results showed that the average level of IWUE across the farm sample was around 61.2%. Farmers would be able to reduce their actual cost by 5% if they adjust irrigation water to its efficient level. This low level of cost reductions is consistent with the existing literature about IWUE in Tunisia. Moreover, education level of farmers, access to credit and agricultural extension service showed a positive relationship with the IWUE in our case study.


Hosni K.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap Biotechpole Of Sidi Thabet | Hassen I.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap Biotechpole Of Sidi Thabet | Chaabane H.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap Biotechpole Of Sidi Thabet | Jemli M.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap Biotechpole Of Sidi Thabet | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The main goal of the present study is to evaluate the effects of enzymatic pre-treatment on the yields, chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves. In T. capitatus, application of cellulase, hemicellulase and combination of both enzymes induced 63.55, 23.72 and 109% increase in the essential oil yields. It also induced increment by 2.7, 31 and 38% in the amount of its main component carvacrol. In R. officinalis, enzymatic treatment resulted in enhanced oil yields by 5, 50 and 20% for cellulase, hemicellulase and the combination of both enzymes, respectively. In contrast to T. capitatus, the amount of the main component 1,8-cineole dropped by 17.73, 36.92 and 15.46% in oils extracted from cellulase, hemicellulase and cellulose/hemicellulase treated samples of R. officinalis. At the same time, the essential oils (at 1/32 and 1/4 dilution for T. capitatus and R. officinalis, respectively) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against 6 food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus feacium and Candida albicans). All investigated oils exhibited antimicrobial activity with those issued from hemicellulase treated samples being the most effective. Enzymatic pre-treatment could be useful for enhancing yield and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils, and hold a good potential for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..


Hosni K.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap | Hassen I.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique | Sebei H.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Casabianca H.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The essential oil of Chrysanthemum coronarium (Garland) flowerheads was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and essayed for its in vitro scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhymurium, Candida albicans, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The aqueous extracts were tested for their allelopathic properties on seed germination and seedling growth of two annual weeds (Sinapis arvensis and Phalaris canariensis) and two crops (Triticum durum and Zea mays) and the identity of the phenolic components was determined by using HPLC-PDA-MS. A total of 40 components, representing 96.58% of the total oil were identified, and the most plentiful constituents were found to be cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (21.82%), trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (12.78%), (E)-β-farnesene (8.97%), germacrene-D (8.92%) and camphor (6.03%). The oil was unable to reduce the DPPH radical, while it exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacteria B. aereus and S. aureus. The aqueous extracts suppress the germination and reduce the seedling growth of the target species. The phytotoxic effect was found to be selective towards weeds with the effects being more pronounced in S. arvensis and P. canariensis. HPLC-PDA-MS analysis allowed the identification of chlorogenic acid acid, di-cafeoylquinic acids isomers, rutin, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, myricetin-3-O-galactoside and tricin. The latter components were reported in C. coronarium for the first time. It is suggested that the identified components may be at least, a key factors in the observed phytotoxic activity and the data presented may contribute to the development of naturally occurring herbicides. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zahed N.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Hosni K.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Brahim N.B.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunis Inrat | Sebei H.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2011

The essential oil of Schinus molle L. fruits, collected from four locations in Tunisia was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The highest yield (4.13%) was obtained in plants from El Kef (northwestern Tunisia), while the lowest yield was observed in INRAT (northeastern Tunisia). Both qualitative and quantitative differences were observed between different oils. All oil samples were rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons and limonene and β-phellandrene (30.8-61.8%), α-phellandrene (21-41.1%), myrcene (8.4-12.8%) and α-pinene (1.9-6.5%) were the main constituents. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The essential oils and extracts obtained from many plants have recently gained popularity and scientific interest because of their use in the food, drug and perfumery industries. In this study, Schinus molle L. fruits have been found to be a potential source of volatile components and some of there are of great economical importance. From a practical standpoint, the essential oils of S. molle fruits could have numerous applications in the food industry, cosmetics and aromatherapy because of their richness in limonene, which is characterized by its nice perfume and biological properties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences, Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyse Physico Chimique Inrap and Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand.


Chebil A.,Institute National Of Recherches En Genie Rural | Bahri W.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne | Frija A.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mograne
New Medit | Year: 2013

The objective of this study is twofold. Firstly, we aim to measure the technical and water efficiency for a sample of 170 cereal farms in Chebika region (Central Tunisia) using Data Envelopment Analysis method. Secondly, computed water efficiency scores are regressed on explanatory variables using a Tobit model, to help identify its determinants. Results indicate that technical efficiency of production in the sample of farms investigated is about 70.72% on average, and water use efficiency is only about 64.86%. This suggests that cereal farms may reduce their water use level while maintaining the same level of production. Furthermore, the estimated Tobit model indicates the positive effect on water use efficiency of variety choice, irrigation sources, membership in water users association, irrigation management and farm size. Finally, based on the empirical results, some suggestions are drawn in order to increase water use efficiency.


The agri-food sector plays a very important role in Tunisia from a social, economic and ecological point of view. The enhancement of agricultural products represents an income and employment source. Anyway, this sector has to cope with problems reducing its performance. This work suggests the setting up of an empirical method to measure the production efficiency of the sector using a panel of agri-food industries. The borderline approach of the stochastic production, which can bring about the productive performance of agri-food industries, is used as empirical framework in order to determine their efficiency in the period 1983-2004. Results show that in Tunisia agri-food industries can be distinguished into two categories, according to the level of State intervention: The subsidized (strategic) agri-food industries and the non-subsidized ones. While the average value of the technical efficiency indices is nearly 0.478, in the case of subsidized industries it is 0.20 and in the case of non- subsidized firms it equals 0.60. Therefore, the subsidized firms are less efficient, whereas the non-subsidized ones are the most efficient. All this demonstrates the effect of the protection of agri-food industries on their level of production efficiency.

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