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Tajini F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Trabelsi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Drevon J.-J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

This study compared the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia strain inoculation. Two common bean genotypes i.e. CocoT and Flamingo varying in their effectiveness for nitrogen fixation were inoculated with Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899, and grown for 50. days in soil-sand substrate in glasshouse conditions. Inoculation of common bean plants with the AM fungi resulted in a significant increase in nodulation compared to plants without inoculation. The combined inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia significantly increased various plant growth parameters compared to simple inoculated plants. In addition, the combined inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia resulted in significantly higher nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in the shoots of common bean plants and improved phosphorus use efficiency compared with their controls, which were not dually inoculated. It is concluded that inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve the efficiency in phosphorus use for symbiotic nitrogen fixation especially under phosphorus deficiency. © 2011.


Sarma S.J.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Brar S.K.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Rabeb L.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Soccol C.R.,Federal University of Paraná | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

Crude glycerol (CG) has several advantages over a range of conventional substrates used for biohydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes NRRL B 407. Meanwhile, high process cost due to requirement of expensive supplementary media component is a concern. Therefore, different less expensive (or wastes) materials have been evaluated as supplementary nutrient for H2 production by CG (meat processing and restaurant waste based biodiesel derived) bioconversion. Among the materials selected, slaughterhouse liquid waste (SL), brewery waste biomass (BWB) and urea was found to improve the production by 18.81 ± 3.56, 27.30 ± 3.54 and 38.57 ± 3.66%, respectively. Further, in the case of urea (10 mg/L), cumulative production as high as 116.41 ± 3.72 μmol H2/L media has been achieved; which is comparable to other reports available on CG bioconversion. Thus, present study demonstrates successful replacement of large amount (~5-6 g/L) of expensive nutrients/buffering agents by negligible amount (~10 mg/L) of different waste materials, without compromising the cumulative H2 yield. Further, the strain used in the present study was found to grow at an acidic pH as low as 3.3, indicating its prospective application for dark fermentative H2 production. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC.


Hammami M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Bouraoui R.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Lahmar M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Selmi H.,Center Regional des Recherches
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

The zero-grazing of dairy cattle has a relatively important role in the house hold economy and the industry mainly in the Tunisian coast. The introduction and the development of this production system were relying on a productivity model that showed shortcomings. His flourishing period was short. It is actually limited by unsatisfactory reproductive performances and its durability is questioned. Financial encouragements and fiscal exemptions of which beneficiated milk collectors (mainly service cooperatives) were insufficient to implement viable management of this type of cattle production system. This cattle production system remained dependant on the national and international market (feed resources) with prices fluctuation and market uncertainty. Continued increases in the prices of concentrates, namely during the last years, showed the fragility of the zero grazing cattle production systems. This fragility is explained by not only low autonomy in feed management and ration making but also by their weak position in negotiating prices of commercialized products (in particular milk). These farms are then incapable of incorporating elevated feed costs in prices of commercialized products.


Tajini F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Trabelsi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Drevon J.-J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Symbiosis | Year: 2011

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes CocoT and Flamingo were inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 and Glomus intraradices (Schenck & Smith) and grown under sufficient versus deficient phosphorus supply for comparing the effects of double inoculation on growth, nodulation, mycorrhization of the roots, phosphorus use efficiency and total nitrogen. Although the double inoculation induced a significant increase in all parameters whatever the phosphorus supply in comparison to control, significant differences were found among genotypes and treatments. Nevertheless, the highest phosphorus use efficiency and plant total nitrogen were found under P deficiency in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. It is concluded that inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could improve symbiotic nitrogen fixation even under phosphorus deficiency. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Raach-Moujahed A.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Haddad B.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunis | Moujahed N.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunis | Bouallegue M.,Faculte des science Mathematiques
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Local and indigenous poultry in Tunisia represent very diversified and heterogeneous populations which remain largely unknown and understudied in spite of the real economic assets that they seemed to represent mainly in rural areas. The present study was envisaged in the objective of conservation, valorization and development of this rustic and well adapted genetic substrate. In this respect growth parameters were measured and meat quality measurements on pH and color (L*: luminance, a*: yellowness b*: redness) were operated. Results showed that a mean Body Weight (BW) of 632 g was reached at week 8, 923 g at week 12 and 1249 g at week 16, with mean Daily Weight Gain (DWG) of 16.72, 11.26 and 10.89 g/d respectively. Males were found to be more (p<0.05) performing than females both in BW and DWG at all ages. The ultime meat pH value after 24 h of slaughtering was relatively high (6.1) and color parameters in the main muscles were particularly intense. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was relatively low (3.97) and remained far lower than several other local populations studied in some European and African countries. It was concluded that Tunisian local poultry presented potentially interesting growth parameters and meat quality characteristics. In addition to the high potential of selection and crosses possibilities, they could represent a strong argument of development of local production systems for rural populations. Thereby, an urgent program of screening, evaluation and conservation of these populations is to be conceived and applied. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.


Zaabza H.B.,Institute National Agronomique | Gara A.B.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Hammami H.,University of Liège | Ferchichi M.A.,Institute National Agronomique | Reki B.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur
Archiv Tierzucht | Year: 2016

A multi-trait repeatability animal model under restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Bayesian methods was used to estimate genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields in Tunisian Holstein cows. The estimates of heritability for milk, fat, and protein yields from the REML procedure were 0.21 ± 0.05, 0.159 ± 0.04, and 0.158 ± 0.04, respectively. The corresponding results from the Bayesian procedure were 0.273 ± 0.02, 0.198 ± 0.01, and 0.187 ± 0.01. Heritability estimates tended to be larger via the Bayesian than those obtained by the REML method. Genetic and permanent environmental variances estimated by REML were smaller than those obtained by the Bayesian analysis. Inversely, REML estimates of the residual variances were larger than Bayesian estimates. Genetic and permanent correlation estimates were on the other hand comparable by both REML and Bayesian methods with permanent environmental being larger than genetic correlations. Results from this study confirm previous reports on genetic parameters for milk traits in Tunisian Holsteins and suggest that a multi-trait approach can be an alternative for implementing a routine genetic evaluation of the Tunisian dairy cattle population. © Author(s) 2016.


Abdouli H.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Ayed M.H.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Elham M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Nabila B.,University of Sousse | Morencos M.R.A.,Technical University of Madrid
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

To evaluate the effect of fenugreek growth stage on its total phenols(TP), tannins (TT), flavonoids (TF) and saponins (SAP) contents, and the impact of TT and SAP on in vitro ruminal fermentation activity, fenugreek was cut at vegetative (V), full flowering (FF) and well-developed pods (WDP) and served for proximate composition, TP, TT, TF, SAP determinations, and for in vitro gas production with (+PEG) or without (-PEG) polyethylene glycol, and with (+SAP) or without (-SAP) its water extract containing saponins. DM was low (10.03%) at V and increased (P<0.05) at FF (13.04%) and WDP (28.73%). There were a consistent decrease (P<0.05) in CP and an increase (P<0.05) in NDF and ADF as fenugreek matured. TP decreased (P<0.05) by 0.005 g/100 g DM d-1 from 1.26 to 0.88 g/100g DM. TF decreased (P<0.05) by 0.006 g/100 g DM d-1 from 0.77 to 0.26 g/100g DM. TT (0.29-0.33 g/100g DM) and SAP (5.79-7.02 g/100 g DM) tended to decrease (P>0.05) from V to WDP. Potential gas production (As) and rate constant were not different (P>0.05) between the three maturity stages while there was a difference (P<0.05) in As between +PEG (35.79 ml/200 mg DM) and -PEG (31.88 ml/200 mg DM). The effect of PEG addition was independent (P>0.05) of the maturity stage. Gas production profiles for +SAP and -SAP were not adequately described by the exponential models with or without lag. Cumulative gas production was not different (P>0.05) between fenugreek cut at V and FF and was the lowest (P<0.05) at WDP. The removal of saponins (-SAP) decreased (P<0.05) gas production. SAP effect was significant (P<0.05) at V and FF not at WDP. Results from this study indicated that the vegetative stage is adequate for cutting fenugreek for food or medicinal uses and at well-developed pods growth stage for use as a forage. The use of fenugreek in ruminant nutrition may profit from in-depth studies on impact of fenugreek genotypes and their cultivation conditions on their antinutritional factors, feed utilization efficiency and products quality.


Hammami M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Soltani E.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Bouraqui R.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur
New Medit | Year: 2011

Off-land milk production is usually practised in small family-run farms with limited land. These farms are not only located in the peri-urban areas surrounding Tunis and the Cap bon and Bizerte regions but also in central and southern (coastline) Tunisia. The development of these activities into new areas with limited forage resources is encouraged by the government through aid programmes, that support and promote the whole chain, and also by new service cooperatives, milk collection centres and milk industries. The main goal is to satisfy the increasing demand for milk and milk-derivatives in the urban and tourist areas. Dairy farms in the new areas have allowed to diversify the farming activities and to ensure a constant source of income for farmers and their families. However, despite satisfactory organisational and financial performances, this sector is still fragile and linked to external sectors (mainly food supply). Its sustainability results from various constraints such as the availability or lack of self-produced forage, the increase of prices and the inconsistent supply of roughages and concentrates in the market.


Raach-Moujahed A.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Moujahed N.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Haddad B.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

The traditional poultry system always existed in Tunisia mainly in rural regions and around urban areas. Meat and eggs from local poultry population are more and more claimed by consumer mainly for presumed higher sensorial and gustative qualities. This publication discusses the present situation of the traditional poultry production, mainly current performances and constraints and presents some alternatives to improve productivity of local bird such as coupled genetic and management actions, outdoor or moreover, organic systems. These alternatives may contribute to establish sustainable traditional farming, to define labeled products and finally to enhance farmers income.


Soumaya T.-H.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Sana D.F.,Institute National Agronomique Of Tunisie | Faysal B.J.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Mateur | Imran H.,Tunis el Manar University
Romanian Biotechnological Letters | Year: 2016

Hedysarum coronarium L. cultivated on calcareous soil in Northern Tunisia was the subject of a trial attempted under field condition, to figure out the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation on their growth, nodulation and mineral content. Rhizobium inoculation enhanced significantly all growth parameters compared to the nitrogen fertilization especially at the flowering stage. No significance difference was shown between the uninoculated check and the nitrogen fertilized plants concerning the nodule number per plant at all plant stage. At 154 DAS (Day After Sowing) and 174 DAS, Rhizobium inoculated plants set a high mean nodule number (86.33 and 77.77 respectively). Nodule weight per plant was high in Rhizobium inoculated plants compared to the uninoculated check and the nitrogen fertilized plants especially at 123 DAS, 154 DAS and 174 DAS. Concerning nutrients content in shoot of sulla at flowering stage, Nitrogen fertilization significantly enhanced nutrients content. However rhizobial inoculation has almost doubled nutrients uptake compared to the nitrogen fertilized control. © 2016 University of Bucharest.

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