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Patent
Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau and French National Center for Scientific Research | Date: 2015-04-14

A device for forming a quasi-neutral ion-electron beam, including: a chamber; a set of means for forming an ion-electron plasma in the chamber; and means for extracting and accelerating charged particles from the plasma out of the chamber. The particles are capable of forming the beam and the extraction and acceleration means that include a set of at least two grids located at one end of the chamber.


Patent
Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Date: 2015-04-30

A method for generating an ion flow asymmetry in a capactively coupled radiofrequency plasma reactor comprising a step for energization of a first electrode by a radiofrequency voltage waveform. The standardized voltage waveform is an approximate waveform with a degree of approximation of a standardized sawtooth radiofrequency function having different rising and falling slopes. The degree of approximation of the approximate waveform and the pressure P of the gas are sufficiently high for causing the appearance of an asymmetry of the ion flows between the ion flow at the first electrode and the ion flow at a second electrode.


Ossikovski R.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

Azzam's differential matrix formalism [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1756 (1978)], originally developed for longitudinally inhomogeneous anisotropic nondepolarizing media, is extended to include depolarizing media. The generalization is physically interpreted in terms of means and uncertainties of the elementary optical properties of the medium, as well as of three anisotropy absorption parameters introduced to describe the depolarization. The formalism results in a particularly simple mathematical procedure for the retrieval of the elementary properties of a generally depolarizing anisotropic medium, assumed to be globally homogeneous, from its experimental Mueller matrix. The approach is illustrated on literature data and the conditions of its validity are identified and discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Morlon H.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Ecology Letters | Year: 2014

Estimating rates of speciation and extinction, and understanding how and why they vary over evolutionary time, geographical space and species groups, is a key to understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes generate biological diversity. Such inferences will increasingly benefit from phylogenetic approaches given the ever-accelerating rates of genetic sequencing. In the last few years, models designed to understand diversification from phylogenetic data have advanced significantly. Here, I review these approaches and what they have revealed about diversification in the natural world. I focus on key distinctions between different models, and I clarify the conclusions that can be drawn from each model. I identify promising areas for future research. A major challenge ahead is to develop models that more explicitly take into account ecology, in particular the interaction of species with each other and with their environment. This will not only improve our understanding of diversification; it will also present a new perspective to the use of phylogenies in community ecology, the science of interaction networks and conservation biology, and might shift the current focus in ecology on equilibrium biodiversity theories to non-equilibrium theories recognising the crucial role of history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.


Moen D.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Morlon H.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Studies of phylogenetic diversification often show evidence for slowdowns in diversification rates over the history of clades. Recent studies seeking biological explanations for this pattern have emphasized the role of niche differentiation, as in hypotheses of adaptive radiation and ecological limits to diversity. Yet many other biological explanations might underlie diversification slowdowns. In this paper, we focus on the geographic context of diversification, environment-driven bursts of speciation, failure of clades to keep pace with a changing environment, and protracted speciation. We argue that, despite being currently underemphasized, these alternatives represent biologically plausible explanations that should be considered along with niche differentiation. Testing the importance of these alternative hypotheses might yield fundamentally different explanations for what influences species richness within clades through time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Bouchoux G.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Mass Spectrometry Reviews | Year: 2012

The present article is the third part of a general overview of the gas-phase protonation thermochemistry of polyfunctional molecules (first part: Mass Spectrom. Rev., 2007, 26:775-835, second part: Mass Spectrom. Rev., 2011, in press). This review is devoted to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids and is divided in two parts. In the first one, the experimental data obtained during the last 30 years using the equilibrium, thermokinetic and kinetic methods are presented. A general re-assignment of the values originating from these various experiments has been done on the basis of the commonly accepted Hunter & Lias 1998 gas-phase basicity scale in order to provide an homogeneous set of data. In the second part, theoretical investigations on gaseous neutral and protonated amino acids are reviewed. Conformational landscapes of both types of species were examined in order to provide theoretical protonation thermochemistry based on the truly identified most stable conformers. Proton affinities computed at the presently highest levels of theory (i.e. composite methods such as Gn procedures) are presented. Estimates of thermochemical parameters calculated using a Boltzmann distribution of conformers at 298K are also included. Finally, comparison between experiment and theory is discussed and a set of evaluated proton affinities, gas-phase basicities and protonation entropies is proposed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Schmid P.J.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Journal of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2010

The description of coherent features of fluid flow is essential to our understanding of fluid-dynamical and transport processes. A method is introduced that is able to extract dynamic information from flow fields that are either generated by a (direct) numerical simulation or visualized/measured in a physical experiment. The extracted dynamic modes, which can be interpreted as a generalization of global stability modes, can be used to describe the underlying physical mechanisms captured in the data sequence or to project large-scale problems onto a dynamical system of significantly fewer degrees of freedom. The concentration on subdomains of the flow field where relevant dynamics is expected allows the dissection of a complex flow into regions of localized instability phenomena and further illustrates the flexibility of the method, as does the description of the dynamics within a spatial framework. Demonstrations of the method are presented consisting of a plane channel flow, flow over a two-dimensional cavity, wake flow behind a flexible membrane and a jet passing between two cylinders. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Vach H.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

We report a new nanocrystalline form of silicon that gives birth to pure hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals that absorb light in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral region despite their small size of only 1 nm and without the need for expensive or toxic metal atoms. On the basis of first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that those pure, but overcoordinated silicon nanocrystals are more stable than any other known silicon nanocrystals due to electron delocalization and that they form spontaneously via self-assembly. Therefore, we predict their immediate application in fields ranging from photovoltaic and light-emitting devices to photothermal cancer treatment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Clanet C.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2015

This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Quere D.,ESPCI ParisTech | Quere D.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2013

This review discusses how drops can levitate on a cushion of vapor when brought in contact with a hot solid. This is the so-called Leidenfrost phenomenon, a dynamical and transient effect, as vapor is injected below the liquid and pressed by the drop weight. The absence of solid/liquid contact provides unique mobility for the levitating liquid, contrasting with the usual situations in which contact lines induce adhesion and enhanced friction: hence a frictionless motion, and the possibility of bouncing after impact. All these characteristics can be combined to create devices in which self-propulsion is obtained, using asymmetric textures on the hot solid surface. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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