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Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Date: 2016-12-05

Described herein are microelectrode array devices, and methods of fabrication, assembly and use of the same, to provide highly localized neural recording and/or neural stimulation to a neurological target. The device includes multiple microelectrode elements arranged protruding shafts. The protruding shafts are enclosed within an elongated probe shaft, and can be expanded from their enclosure. The microelectrode elements, and elongated probe shafts, are dimensioned in order to target small volumes of neurons located within the nervous system, such as in the deep brain region. Beneficially, the probe can be used to quickly identify the location of a neurological target, and remain implanted for long-term monitoring and/or stimulation.

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Date: 2016-07-27

A drop delivery system comprising a light source; an optical waveguide bringing light from the light source; and a liquid supplying means configured to bring a liquid at a tip of the optical waveguide, wherein the light source and the optical waveguide are configured to enable the light to eject a drop of the liquid.

A method for manufacturing an object including the steps of forming layers by adding successive layers of material to form the object by selective laser melting (SLM), and inducing plastic deformation and residual stress into solidified material of at least one of the successive layers of material to improve mechanical properties and a fatigue resistance of the object, wherein the plastic deformation and the residual stress are induced by a laser.

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Date: 2016-07-26

A system for subpixel resolution imaging of an amplitude and quantitative phase image, the system including a waveguide having a top plane, a bottom plane, and two sides, an array of light sources emitting first befit beams from one side of the two sides of a waveguide, a holographic photopolymer film positioned on the top plane or the bottom plane of the waveguide and arranged to be illuminated by the first light beams from the array of light sources via the waveguide and to produce second light beams by diffraction, and an imaging device for capturing interference pattern light beams that passed through a sample, the sample arranged to be illuminated by the second light beams.

Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Date: 2016-09-26

System comprising at least one sensor configured to take a set of images from different viewpoints of a scene; a processor configured to identifying a point source represented in the images of a set of images; computing for each image of the set of images the subspace of potential locations of the point source in the scene on the basis of the viewpoint or a viewpoint region of the image and on the basis of the subregion of the image representing the point source; and computing a point intersection region of the subspaces of potential locations of the point source of the images of the set of images.

The invention concerns a method of manufacturing objects by selective laser melting (SLM) in which between the forming of subsequent layers of the object a plastic deformation and residual stresses are induced into the solidified material of at least one of said layers to improve the mechanical properties and the fatigue life of the object. This step is carried out with a laser, as a LSP or WLSP step. The invention also concerns a system to carry out the method.

Ijspeert A.J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Science | Year: 2014

The graceful and agile movements of animals are difficult to analyze and emulate because locomotion is the result of a complex interplay of many components: The central and peripheral nervous systems, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment. The goals of biorobotics are to take inspiration from biological principles to design robots that match the agility of animals, and to use robots as scientific tools to investigate animal adaptive behavior. Used as physical models, biorobots contribute to hypothesis testing in fields such as hydrodynamics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and prosthetics. Their use may contribute to the design of prosthetic devices that more closely take human locomotion principles into account. © 2014 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved.

Gonczy P.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The centriole is an evolutionarily conserved macromolecular structure that is crucial for the formation of flagella, cilia and centrosomes. The ultrastructure of the centriole was first characterized decades ago with the advent of electron microscopy, revealing a striking ninefold radial arrangement of microtubules. However, it is only recently that the molecular mechanisms governing centriole assembly have begun to emerge, including the elucidation of the crucial role of spindle assembly abnormal 6 (SAS-6) proteins in imparting the ninefold symmetry. These advances have brought the field to an exciting era in which architecture meets function. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Brisken C.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

Understanding the biology of the breast and how ovarian hormones impinge on it is key to rational new approaches in breast cancer prevention and therapy. Because of the success of selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, and aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer treatment, oestrogens have long received the most attention. Early progesterone receptor (PR) antagonists, however, were dismissed because of severe side effects, but awareness is now increasing that progesterone is an important hormone in breast cancer. Oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) signalling and PR signalling have distinct roles in normal mammary gland biology in mice; both ERα and PR delegate many of their biological functions to distinct paracrine mediators. If the findings in the mouse model translate to humans, new preventive and therapeutic perspectives might open up. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Petersen C.C.H.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Facial muscles drive whisker movements, which are important for active tactile sensory perception in mice and rats. These whisker muscles are innervated by cholinergic motor neurons located in the lateral facial nucleus. The whisker motor neurons receive synaptic inputs from premotor neurons, which are located within the brain stem, the midbrain, and the neocortex. Complex, distributed neural circuits therefore regulate whisker movement during behavior. This review focuses specifically on cortical whisker motor control. The whisker primary motor cortex (M1) strongly innervates brain stem reticular nuclei containing whisker premotor neurons, which might form a central pattern generator for rhythmic whisker protraction. In a parallel analogous pathway, the whisker primary somatosensory cortex (S1) strongly projects to the brain stem spinal trigeminal interpolaris nucleus, which contains whisker premotor neurons innervating muscles for whisker retraction. These anatomical pathways may play important functional roles, since stimulation of M1 drives exploratory rhythmic whisking, whereas stimulation of S1 drives whisker retraction. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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