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Belaid L.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Dumont A.,University of Paris Descartes | Chaillet N.,Université de Sherbrooke | De Brouwere V.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Systematic Reviews | Year: 2015

Background: Despite a global increase in contraception use, its prevalence remains low in low- and middle-income countries. One strategy to improve uptake and use of contraception, as an essential complement to policies and supply-side interventions, is demand generation. Demand generation interventions have reportedly produced positive effects on uptake and use of family planning services, but the evidence base remains poorly documented. To reduce this knowledge gap, we will conduct a systematic review on the impact of demand generation interventions on the use of modern contraception. The objectives of the review will be as follows: (1) to synthesize evidence on the impacts and costs of family planning demand generation interventions and on their effectiveness in improving modern contraceptive use and (2) to identify the indicators used to assess effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impacts of demand generation interventions. Methods/design: We will systematically review the public health and health promotion literature in several databases (e.g., CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE) as well as gray literature. We will select articles from 1970 to 2015, in French and in English. The review will include studies that assess the impact of family planning programs or interventions on changes in contraception use. The studied interventions will be those with a demand generation component, even if a supply component is implemented. Two members of the team will independently search, screen, extract data, and assess the quality of the studies selected. Different tools will be used to assess the quality of the studies depending on the study design. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be conducted. The analysis will involve comparing odd ratios (OR) Discussion: The systematic review results will be disseminated to United Nations Population Fund program countries and will contribute to the development of a guidance document and programmatic tools for planning, implementing, and evaluating demand generation interventions in family planning. Improving the effectiveness of family planning programs is critical for empowering women and adolescent girls, improving human capital, reducing dependency ratios, reducing maternal and child mortality, and achieving demographic dividends in low- and middle-income countries. Systematic review registration: This protocol is registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42015017549). © 2015 Belaid et al.

Deshommes E.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Tardif R.,Espum Ecole Of Sante Publique Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Edwards M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Sauve S.,University of Montréal | Prevost M.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal
Chemistry Central Journal | Year: 2012

In vivo estimations of Pb particle bioavailability are costly and variable, because of the nature of animal assays. The most feasible alternative for increasing the number of investigations carried out on Pb particle bioavailability is in vitro testing. This testing method requires calibration using in vivo data on an adapted animal model, so that the results will be valid for childhood exposure assessment. Also, the test results must be reproducible within and between laboratories. The Relative Bioaccessibility Leaching Procedure, which is calibrated with in vivo data on soils, presents the highest degree of validation and simplicity. This method could be applied to Pb particles, including those in paint and dust, and those in drinking water systems, which although relevant, have been poorly investigated up to now for childhood exposure assessment. © 2012 Deshommes et al.; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd.

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