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Hepach R.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Haberl K.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Lambert S.,Ecole Normale Superieure Research University | Tomasello M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Infancy | Year: 2016

Young children are extremely motivated to help others, but it is not clear whether they do so in anonymous situations without social recognition. In two studies, we found that 18-month-old toddlers provided help equally in situations where an adult recipient was present and in situations where an adult recipient was not present. We included several control conditions to rule out that toddlers were simply unaware of their anonymity or were merely motivated to restore the physical order of things. Together, these findings suggest that early in ontogeny children are motivated to help others in need regardless of whether they can immediately be recognized for their prosocial intentions. © 2016 International Congress of Infant Studies (ICIS). Source

Mammoli D.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Salvi N.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Milani J.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Buratto R.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 18 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

Para-water is an analogue of para-hydrogen, where the two proton spins are in a quantum state that is antisymmetric under permutation, also known as singlet state. The populations of the nuclear spin states in para-water are believed to have long lifetimes just like other Long-Lived States (LLSs). This hypothesis can be verified by measuring the relaxation of an excess or a deficiency of para-water, also known as a "Triplet-Singlet Imbalance" (TSI), i.e., a difference between the average population of the three triplet states T (that are symmetric under permutation) and the population of the singlet state S. In analogy with our recent findings on ethanol and fumarate, we propose to adapt the procedure for Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (D-DNP) to prepare such a TSI in frozen water at very low temperatures in the vicinity of 1.2 K. After rapid heating and dissolution using an aprotic solvent, the TSI should be largely preserved. To assess this hypothesis, we studied the lifetime of water as a molecular entity when diluted in various solvents. In neat liquid H2O, proton exchange rates have been characterized by spin-echo experiments on oxygen-17 in natural abundance, with and without proton decoupling. One-dimensional exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) has been used to study proton exchange rates in H2O, HDO and D2O mixtures diluted in various aprotic solvents. In the case of 50 mM H2O in dioxane-d8, the proton exchange lifetime is about 20 s. After dissolving, one can observe this TSI by monitoring intensities in oxygen-17 spectra of H2O (if necessary using isotopically enriched samples) where the AX2 system comprising a "spy" oxygen A and two protons X2 gives rise to binomial multiplets only if the TSI vanishes. Alternatively, fast chemical addition to a suitable substrate (such as an activated aldehyde or ketone) can provide AX2 systems where a carbon-13 acts as a spy nucleus. Proton signals that relax to equilibrium with two distinct time constants can be considered as a hallmark of a TSI. We optimized several experimental procedures designed to preserve and reveal dilute para-water in bulk. This journal is © the Owner Societies. Source

Kwak S.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Cho M.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Laptev I.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation | Ponce J.,Ecole Normale Superieure Research University | Schmid C.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision | Year: 2016

This paper addresses the problem of automatically localizing dominant objects as spatio-temporal tubes in a noisy collection of videos with minimal or even no supervision. We formulate the problem as a combination of two complementary processes: discovery and tracking. The first one establishes correspondences between prominent regions across videos, and the second one associates similar object regions within the same video. Interestingly, our algorithm also discovers the implicit topology of frames associated with instances of the same object class across different videos, a role normally left to supervisory information in the form of class labels in conventional image and video understanding methods. Indeed, as demonstrated by our experiments, our method can handle video collections featuring multiple object classes, and substantially outperforms the state of the art in colocalization, even though it tackles a broader problem with much less supervision. © 2015 IEEE. Source

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