Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes

Nantes, France

Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes

Nantes, France
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Cousty M.,Clinique Equine de Uvet | Retureau C.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes | Tricaud C.,Clinique Equine de Uvet | Geffroy O.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes | Caure S.,Clinique Equine de Uvet
Veterinary Record | Year: 2010

The radiographs of 102 French trotters presented with signs of back pain were reviewed retrospectively, and a control group of 16 French trotters without back pain was analysed. The age, sex, type of race, number of starts, earnings and index of performance were recorded. Radiological evaluation was performed from the 14th thoracic (T14) to the third lumbar (L3) vertebra. Impingement of the spinous processes (ISP), periarticular proliferation of synovial intervertebral articulations (PP-SIA) and sclerosis of SIA (S-SIA) were located and graded. Radiological lesions were identified in 10 (62 per cent) of horses in the control group and 98 (96 per cent) of horses in the clinical group. The number of affected horses, the number of radiological lesions per horse and the mean number of affected intervertebral spaces were significantly higher in the clinical group. For ISP, the number of affected horses was not significantly different between the groups, but the number of affected interspinous spaces and the grade of lesions were significantly higher in the clinical group. For PP-SIA, the number of affected horses, the number of affected SIA and the grade of lesions were significantly higher in the clinical group. For S-SIA, the number of affected horses and the number of affected SIA were not significantly different between the groups but the grade of lesions was significantly higher in the clinical group. In both groups, ISP was most commonly encountered between T15-T18 and PP-SIA and S-SIA were most commonly encountered between T17-L2. Radiographic lesions of the back were less severe and more localised in horses without back pain than in those with back pain.


Kerouanton A.,Unite Caracterisation et Epidemiologie Bacterienne | Roche S.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Marault M.,Unite Caracterisation et Epidemiologie Bacterienne | Velge P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: To study the diversity and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from sludge. Methods and Results: A total of 60 isolates of L. monocytogenes from sludge were characterized by serotyping, PFGE typing and using in vitro and in vivo virulence assays. The PFGE patterns were compared with those of food and human isolates to determine whether specific group clones are associated with environmental samples. The 60 isolates gave 44 different combined ApaI/AscI PFGE patterns. The PFGE patterns of most isolates were similar or very similar to those of epidemic isolates. The majority (93%) of isolates were found to be virulent by plaque-forming assay and by mouse virulence assay. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that L. monocytogenes strains found in non-sanitized sludge are virulent and represent a potential health hazard. Although no case of listeriosis related to sludge spread onto agricultural land has been reported, particular attention to this pathogen is needed. Significance and Impact of the study: This is the first study dealing with the characterization of L. monocytogenes isolates from non-sanitized sludge samples by molecular typing methods and in vitro and in vivo virulence assays. Our findings provide relevant information for evaluating the health risks associated with spreading sludge onto agricultural land.


Guan G.Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chauvin A.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes | Rogniaux H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Luo J.X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2010

Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) is a Babesia isolated from sheep infested with Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China, and is closely related to B. motasi based on the 18S rRNA gene sequence. In the present study, an ELISA was developed with merozoite antigens of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BQMA) purified from in vitro culture. When the positive threshold was chosen as 30% of the antibodies rate, evaluated with 198 negative sera, the specificity was 955%. Except for Babesia sp. Tianzhu, there was no cross-reaction between BQMA and positive sera from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Ningxian)-, Babesia sp. Hebei-, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-, Theileria luwenshuni-, T. uilenbergi-, or Anaplasma ovis-infected sheep, which are the dominant haemoparasites of small ruminants in China. Specific antibodies against Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) were produced 1 or 2 weeks post-infection and a high level of antibodies persisted for more than 8 months in experimentally infected sheep. This ELISA was tested on 974 sera collected from field-grazing sheep in 3 counties of Gansu province, northwestern China to evaluate the seroprevalence of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) infection and the average positive rate was 6684%. The feasibility of increasing the specificity of this BQMA-based ELISA, by using some BQMA antigens for serodiagnosis is discussed. © Cambridge University Press 2010.


Beaudeau F.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes | Beaudeau F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beaudeau F.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ohlson A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Emanuelson U.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

To assess the economic impact of bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infections, accurate estimates of their associated effects on animal performance are needed. This study aimed to quantify the variation in individual test-day milk yield and somatic cell count, risk of reproductive failure after first service of dairy cows, and risk of death of calves and heifers according to the BCV and BRSV status of the herd. Three types of status were defined for BCV and BRSV infections, based on 1) the dynamics over a 7-mo period of BCV- and BRSV-specific antibody levels in pooled milk of primiparous cows; 2) the possible occurrence of presumably BCV- and BRSV-related clinical outbreaks; and 3) the combination of both pieces of information. A total of 36,184 test days, 2,716 cows with a first service, and 4,104 calves and heifers in 65 Swedish herds were included in the analyses. Animal performance associated with BCV and BRSV infections was quantified using hierarchical mixed generalized and survival models, after adjustment for covariates known to influence the performance under study. A significant reduction in milk yield was observed for cows in presumably BRSV recently infected herds, as well as in herds having a presumably BRSV-related clinical outbreak (of 0.57 and 0.91 kg/d, respectively), compared with cows in presumably infection-free herds. There was also a significant increase in somatic cell count (of 12,000 cells/mL) for cows located in herds with a BRSV outbreak. The risk of failure after first service, as well as the risk of death in calf and heifer, was numerically higher in BRSV-infected herds, although this was not statistically significant. In contrast, BCV infection herd status, as defined in the present study, was not significantly associated with any production losses in animals from infected herds compared with those in infection-free herds. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.


Moinet M.,Groupe de Recherche et dEtude Pour la Gestion de lEnvironnement | Moinet M.,Laboratoire Of La Rage Et Of La Faune Sauvage Of Nancy | Fournier-Chambrillon C.,Groupe de Recherche et dEtude Pour la Gestion de lEnvironnement | Andre-Fontaine G.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010

To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Ieterohasmorrhagias, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martesfoina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohaemorragiae were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to measure its impact on the population dynamics of these rodent predators. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010.


Vallefuoco R.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Pommellet H.L.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes | Savin A.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | Decambron A.,National Veterinary School of Alfort | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2016

Objective: Our objectives were: 1) to review the complications associated with stabilization of appendicular fractures in cats and small dogs using locking compression plates (LCP), and 2) to identify factors that could influence fixation construct stability. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Materials and methods: Medical and radiographic records of cats and small dogs with appendicular fractures treated with LCP were reviewed. Only cases with adequate follow-up to document clinical union and cases for which complications appeared before the clinical union were included. Complications were classified as implant-related complications or other complications. Cases with implant-related complications were compared to cases with non-implant-related complications for differences in signalment (species, age, body weight, multiple fractures), fracture location and type (fractured bone, fracture localization, closed or open fracture), reduction method (open reduction and internal fixation [ORIF] or minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis [MIPO]) and fixation evaluations (implant size, plate-bridging ratio, plate span ratio, working length, plate screw density, number of screws and cortices engaged per plate and per main fragment, ratio between screw and bone diameter at the narrowest aspect of the bone, and presence of ancillary fixation). Results: Seventy-five fractures from 63 cats (64 fractures) and 10 dogs (11 fractures) met the inclusion criteria. Eight humeral, 13 radio-ulnar, 26 femoral, and 28 tibio-fibular fractures were treated. Primary repair of the fracture was performed using 2.0 mm and 2.4 mm LCP in 22 and 53 fractures, respectively. Overall and implant-related complications were encountered in 13 and seven of 75 fractures, respectively. Fixation failure was not significantly associated with any aforementioned factor considered in this study, and in particular, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of fixation failure between fractures stabilized with two, or more than two, bicortical locking screws per main fragment. Clinical significance: 2.0 mm and 2.4 mm LCP were used to manage appendicular fractures in cats and small dogs. The overall complication and fixation failure rate were comparable to those reported in previous studies in which various locking plate systems were used. © Schattauer 2016.


Patent
Graftys Inc., Ecole Nationale Veterinaire De Nantes and University of Nantes | Date: 2013-09-03

The present invention concerns a composition useful as bone substitute comprising one or more calcium-phosphate compounds in association with an analgesic. It also refers to a preparation process of said composition, a preparation process of a drug-combined device comprising said composition, the drug combined device thus obtained, a kit comprising said composition and the use of said composition for the preparation of a drug-combined device useful for filling a bony defect caused in the iliac crest by collection of auto-graft bone, as a scaffold for tissue engineering and to produce a dental or bony implant.


Roqueplo C.,British Petroleum | Marie J.-L.,British Petroleum | Andre-Fontaine G.,Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes | Kodjo A.,VetAgro Sup | Davoust B.,British Petroleum
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n= 62), Gabon (n= 255) and Ivory Coast (n= 158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ≥1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ≥1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (p<. 0.001). In Ivory Coast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection. © 2014.


PubMed | Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2010

To assess the economic impact of bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infections, accurate estimates of their associated effects on animal performance are needed. This study aimed to quantify the variation in individual test-day milk yield and somatic cell count, risk of reproductive failure after first service of dairy cows, and risk of death of calves and heifers according to the BCV and BRSV status of the herd. Three types of status were defined for BCV and BRSV infections, based on 1) the dynamics over a 7-mo period of BCV- and BRSV-specific antibody levels in pooled milk of primiparous cows; 2) the possible occurrence of presumably BCV- and BRSV-related clinical outbreaks; and 3) the combination of both pieces of information. A total of 36,184 test days, 2,716 cows with a first service, and 4,104 calves and heifers in 65 Swedish herds were included in the analyses. Animal performance associated with BCV and BRSV infections was quantified using hierarchical mixed generalized and survival models, after adjustment for covariates known to influence the performance under study. A significant reduction in milk yield was observed for cows in presumably BRSV recently infected herds, as well as in herds having a presumably BRSV-related clinical outbreak (of 0.57 and 0.91 kg/d, respectively), compared with cows in presumably infection-free herds. There was also a significant increase in somatic cell count (of 12,000 cells/mL) for cows located in herds with a BRSV outbreak. The risk of failure after first service, as well as the risk of death in calf and heifer, was numerically higher in BRSV-infected herds, although this was not statistically significant. In contrast, BCV infection herd status, as defined in the present study, was not significantly associated with any production losses in animals from infected herds compared with those in infection-free herds.

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