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Rognant N.,Hopital edouard Herriot | Rognant N.,University of Lyon | Rouviere O.,Hopital edouard Herriot | Rouviere O.,University of Lyon | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2010

Background Reduction of renal blood flow (RBF) due to a renal artery stenosis (RAS) can lead to renal ischemia and atrophy. However in pigs, there are no data describing the relationship between the degree of RAS, the reduction of RBF, and the increase of systemic plasma renin activity (PRA). Therefore, we conducted a study in order to measure the effect of acute and gradual RAS on RBF, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and systemic PRA in pigs.MethodsRAS was induced experimentally in six pigs using an occluder placed around the renal artery downstream of an ultrasound flow probe. The vascular occluder was inflated gradually to reduce RBF. At each inflation step, percentage of RAS was measured by digital substraction angiography (DSA) with simultaneous measurements of RBF, MAP, and PRA. Data were normalized to baseline values obtained before RAS induction. Piecewise regression analysis was performed between percentage of RAS and relative RBF, MAP, and PRA, respectively.ResultsIn all pigs, the relationship between the degree of RAS and RBF was similar. RBF decreased over a threshold of 42% of RAS, with a rapid drop in RBF when RAS reached 70%. PRA increased dramatically over a threshold of 58% of RAS (1,300% before occlusion). MAP increased slightly (15% before occlusion) without identifiable threshold.ConclusionsThis study emphasizes that the relation between the degree of RAS and RBF and systemic PRA is not linear and that a high degree of RAS must be reached before the occurrence of significant hemodynamic and humoral effects. © 2010 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

Callait-Cardinal M.P.,University of Lyon | Callait-Cardinal M.P.,CNRS Biometry and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory | Gilot-Fromont E.,University of Lyon | Gilot-Fromont E.,CNRS Biometry and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

The relationship between flock management and histomoniasis, a re-emergent infection in poultry, was investigated by statistical techniques used in veterinary epidemiology to deal with various problems including: multicollinearity, confounding, interaction or sample size. Associations between the variables describing flock management were examined by multivariate descriptive analysis to reduce the number of independent variables, prior to investigating associations with the disease. No homogenous groups of farms were found in the 44 free-range turkey flocks sampled in France. Histomonas meleagridis was identified in 26/38 flocks and histomoniasis was confirmed in 19 flocks. Cleanliness of the building, wet litter and diarrhoea were linked with H. meleagridis and severity of histomoniasis. Sharing outdoor fields simultaneously with chickens was related to serious macroscopic lesions determined by post-mortem examinations. Contrary to general belief, acidification of drinking water with organic acid had consistent association with the presence of H. meleagridis in turkey caeca. These results confirm previous findings and provide several new hypotheses on the effects of hygiene and water management on H. meleagridis and histomoniasis. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009.

Wimmershoff J.,University of Zurich | Polkinghorne A.,University of Zurich | Grest P.,University of Zurich | Schade B.,University of Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2010

Survivin is a member of the family of proteins known as 'inhibitors of apoptosis proteins'. Survivin has a role in cellular decisions concerning division and survival and is frequently expressed in neoplastic cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemically the expression of survivin in normal canine tissues and in canine lymphoma. A representative range of fetal and adult normal tissues as well as biopsy samples from dogs with lymphoma were assembled in tissue arrays. The lymphomas were classified according to the revised Kiel and to the Revised European American Lymphoma - World Health Organization (REAL-WHO) schemes. Polyclonal and monoclonal antisera cross-reactive with canine survivin identified cytoplasmic expression of the molecule in a broad range of normal canine cells. The same reagents demonstrated cytoplasmic labelling of more than 5% of cells in all 83 lymphoma samples tested with polyclonal antiserum and in 67 of 82 (82%) of samples tested with monoclonal antiserum. Survivin was expressed by a wide range of canine lymphoma subtypes, but the expression of this molecule in normal canine tissues must be considered if novel therapies targeting survivin are applied to the management of canine lymphoma. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Laffosse J.-M.,Center Hospitalier University Purpan | Kinkpe C.,Service de chirurgie orthopedique pediatrique | Gomez-Brouchet A.,Toulouse University Hospital Center | Accadbled F.,Center Hospitalier University Purpan | And 3 more authors.
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy | Year: 2010

Purpose Subchondral bone (SCB) of the vertebral endplates (VEP) is the principal site of changes in vertebral trabecular microarchitecture secondary to intervertebral disc degeneration. However, the microstructure of this region has not yet been clearly characterized. Methods One thoracic and one lumbar vertebral unit (vertebra-disc-vertebra) was removed in nine pigs aged 4 months. Three samples (one central and two laterals) were taken from each VEP. Micro-CT examination and histomorphometric measurements of the subchondral trabecular bone of the VEP were carried out. Correlations between micro-CT and histological parameters were sought. Results Trabecular network was significantly denser [increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb.N), decreased intertrabecular separation (Tb.Sp)] in the cranial endplates of the vertebral units. It was also significantly denser and less well organized [increased degree of anisotropy (DA)] in the centre of the VEP. The thickness of the cartilage endplate (CEP), SCB and growth cartilage were significantly lower in the centre of the VEP. There was a significant negative correlation between BV/TV, Tb.N and DA with the thicknesses of the CEP and SCB whereas Tb.Sp was positively correlated with these two parameters. Conclusion We observed densification of the trabecular network in the centre of the VEP overlying the nucleus pulposus, partly related to thinner hyaline cartilage. Densification is associated with more anisotropic architecture that could cause lower mechanical strength in this area. This study provides new information on the microarchitecture of the SCB of the VEP which will make it possible to validate future models. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Laffosse J.-M.,Institut Universitaire de France | Laffosse J.-M.,Center Hospitalier University | Odent T.,Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique | Accadbled F.,Center Hospitalier University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2010

We conducted a micro-CT analysis of subchondral bone of the vertebral end-plates after application of compressive stress. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral units were instrumented by carrying out left asymmetric tether in eleven 4-week-old pigs. After 3 months of growth, instrumented units and control units were harvested. Micro-CT study of subchondral bone was performed on one central and two lateral specimens (fixated side and non-fixated side). In control units, bone volume fraction (BV/TV), number of trabeculae (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and degree of anisotropy (DA) were significantly higher, whereas intertrabecular space (Tb.Sp) was significantly lower in center than in periphery.Nosignificant difference between the fixated and non-fixated sides was found. In instrumented units, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and DA were significantly higher in center than in periphery. BV/TV, Tb.N, and Conn.D were significantly higher in fixated than in non-fixated side, while Tb.Sp was significantly lower. We noted BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th significantly lower, and Tb.Sp significantly higher, in the instrumented levels. This study showed, in instrumented units, two opposing processes generating a reorganization of the trabecular network. First, an osteolytic process (decrease in BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th) by stress-shielding, greater in center and on non-fixated side. Second, an osteogenic process (higher BV/TV, Tb.N, Conn.D, and lower Tb.Sp) due to the compressive loading induced by growth on the fixated side. This study demonstrates the densification of the trabecular bone tissue of the vertebral end-plates after compressive loading, and illustrates the potential risks of excessively rigid spinal instrumentation which may induce premature osteopenia. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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