Salotti J.-M.,Laboratoire Of Lintegration Du Materiau Au Systeme Umr 5218 |
Laithier C.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique |
Machut B.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique |
Marie A.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique |
And 3 more authors.
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2015
For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the "human centered design" paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments:- The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) coordinated a Mars analog research program in Morocco in February 2013. During this 23-nation expedition, we studied surface mobility aspects in challenging terrains also to be expected on Mars. Two test subjects in high-fidelity spacesuit simulators and driving All-Terrain Vehicles (ATV, aka quads) had to traverse various obstacles found in a desert region and answer a list of questions about their vehicle, the obstacles and possible options to go further.- Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out.- Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make the vehicles easier to handle, safer to use and more efficient in the field to cross an obstacle. The final recommendation is to use winches and ramps, which already are widely used by quad drivers. We report on the extension of the reachable areas if such tools were available. This work has been supported by ILEWG, EuroMoonMars and the Austrian Space Forum (OEWF). © 2014 COSPAR.
Svendsen A.,VU University Amsterdam |
Schlacht I.L.,TU Berlin |
Nebergall K.,Chicago Society for Space Studies |
Battler M.M.,University of Western Ontario |
And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2013
This paper presents the results of studies on living and working activities from the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) EuroMoonMars campaign 2013, carried out at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah to test exploration procedures in Analogue Moon/Mars Base Infrastructure. Inside the station the feasibility and limitations of human and robotic planetary exploration were investigated by two teams of seven and six members (crew 124-125, respectively) for a period of two weeks each. This paper presents the analysis performed by the crews on safety, performance, and comfort during living and working activities. The living conditions were investigated with a debriefing workshop in order to increase the crew's well-being and performance in isolation and an observation of how food and sound impacted the crew. Among the working activities of the crew, this report is concerning the development of an Arduino-based Device for Monitoring Internal EVA Helmet Temperature During EVA, and the ergonomics and balance of transport and access to heavy hand tools on the simulation space suit. Crewmember Comfort and Safety were investigated by Perception of risk, realistic risk of injury, and knowledge of emergency procedures in a simulated Mars environment. Also investigated were design and development of geological field equipment for use in space suit, and ATV capability assessment at MDRS. The campaign was organized by ILEWG with the support of Mars Society, VU Amsterdam, George Washington University, and NASA Ames. ©2013 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved.
Salotti J.M.,University of Bordeaux 1 |
Bialais V.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique |
Le Floch C.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique |
Sagean R.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012
We address the problem of determining the best option for surface vehicles in the context of a human mission to Mars. We adopted a human centred design approach, focusing on human systems interactions rather than on technology. In the first part of this work, we present ten criteria that should be taken into account in the decision process: mass, volume, energy needs, other consumables needs, easiness of deployment, maximum reachable distance, adaptation to terrain, autonomy, usability, robustness and reparability. Then we examined several options and discuss them. Pressurized or unpressurized, one or several vehicles, some life support provided on board or not, etc. All options have been assessed according to the criteria. In the last part, we present three different scenarios for a human mission to Mars that have been recently published. We show that the best choice for the surface vehicles depends on the scenario because the relevance of each criterion highly depends on the constraints and the context of the mission. Copyright © (2012) by the International Astronautical Federation.
Rossignol V.,Esterel Technologies |
Bey C.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2012
Cockpit Display System (CDS) suppliers need to now prepare for the cockpits of the future. The architecture, design and ergonomics of the cockpits have to be re-assessed in order to place the pilot at the center of the system, while taking into account the increasing complexity of the systems. Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) have to be simplified and made more intuitive. Thus, there is a need for dedicated HMI design tools and human-factor-oriented processes that are able to support both the required flexibility in the display creation for various types of interactive displays and the increasing demand for safety in avionics displays. This paper presents a COTS approach to these needs, which combines the SCADE Display model-based HMI software design solution, designed from the ground up for displays with safety objectives, with an associated prototyping and development process largely based upon human factors assessment. The paper concludes with a status of current research activities on the topic and a summary of the benefits provided by this approach for interactive aerospace displays. Copyright © 2012 SAE International.
Thai V.,National University of Ireland |
Rouille P.-Y.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cognitique |
Handschuh S.,National University of Ireland
ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology | Year: 2012
Faceted navigation is a technique for the exploration and discovery of a collection of resources, which can be of various types including text documents. While being information-rich resources, documents are usually not treated as content-bearing items in faceted browsing interfaces, and yet the required clean metadata is not always available or matches users' interest. In addition, the existing linear listing paradigm for representing result items from the faceted filtering process makes it difficult for users to traverse or compare across facet values in different orders of importance to them. In this context, we report in this article a visual support toward faceted browsing of a collection of documents based on a set of entities of interest to users. Our proposed approach involves using a multi-dimensional visualization as an alternative to the linear listing of focus items. In this visualization, visual abstraction based on a combination of a conceptual structure and the structural equivalence of documents can be simultaneously used to deal with a large number of items. Furthermore, the approach also enables visual ordering based on the importance of facet values to support prioritized, cross-facet comparisons of focus items. A user study was conducted and the results suggest that interfaces using the proposed approach can support users better in exploratory tasks and were also well-liked by the participants of the study, with the hybrid interface combining the multidimensional visualization with the linear listing receiving the most favorable ratings. © 2012 ACM.