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Navarro-Cerrillo R.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Manzanedo R.D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Bohorque J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Sanchez R.,CIFOR | And 6 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Diameter distribution and temporal and spatial patterns of a Cedrus atlantica forest were studied across a management gradient (undisturbed, logged and highly disturbed) in Ifrane National Park, Morocco. Forest structure and regeneration dynamics showed significant differences among management levels. The diameter distribution in undisturbed and logged stands indicated the presence of few young individuals, and a poor regeneration status in highly disturbed stands. Variance in diameter was larger in natural stands compared to managed ones. There was a seedling establishment pulse during the time period between 1910 and 1990 at three sites, but a lack of sapling and juveniles occurred at undisturbed and logged forests in the last century, which might be attributed to competition between C. atlantica and Quercus ilex. Nevertheless, cedar trees persistently recruited to all forests during the last 50. years, but cedar density was significantly higher in the highly disturbed forest areas. Spatial analysis shows a general trend toward aggregation for all species involved. This pattern was observed among C. atlantica trees in undisturbed and highly disturbed stands but was not significant in logged stands. Differences in management may promote variation in stand structure and regeneration dynamics of the subalpine cedar forests along the management gradient in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Williams A.T.,University of Swansea | Williams A.T.,New University of Lisbon | Khattabi A.,Ecole Nationale Forestiere dIngenieurs
Journal of Coastal Conservation | Year: 2015

Twenty-one beach sites from 19 locations in Nador Province, Morocco, were analysed for coastal scenic beauty via a 26 parameter (natural and anthropogenic) checklist assessment and rated on a five point (1-bad, 5-good) attribute scale. A weighting index to which fuzzy logic mathematics was applied, enabled a scenic decision value ‘D’, to be calculated, resulting in a five scale classification: CLASS 1: Extremely attractive natural site with a very high landscape value, having a D value >0.85; CLASS II: Attractive natural site with high landscape value, having a D value between 0.65 and 0.85; CLASS III: Many natural with little outstanding landscape features and a D value between 0.65 and 0.4; CLASS IV: Mainly unattractive urban, with a low landscape value, and a D value between 0.4 and 0); CLASS V: Very unattractive urban, intensive development with a low landscape value with a D value <0. Differentiation showed that there was one site in Class 1 (Kamkoum El Baz); three in Class II; eight in Class III; nine in Class IV, and none in Class V. This semi-quantitative assessment eliminates much of the subjectivity involved in assessment of scenery for management/zoning purposes, as scenery is a fundamental component of what drives the tourism industry. Management efforts to improve scenery should concentrate upon anthropogenic parameters, for example, litter, as these are ‘easier’ to change, than the more obvious physical parameters. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Menard N.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Motsch P.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Delahaye A.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Saintvanne A.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2014

Barbary macaques live in extreme temperate environments characterized by strongly seasonal resource availability. They are mainly terrestrial while foraging, harvesting food from the herbaceous layer. These monkeys are threatened mainly because of anthropogenic habitat degradation. We studied the adaptive capacities of wild groups of Barbary macaques that lived in different cedar forests undergoing varying extents of grazing pressure from domestic livestock. In all three sites, diet varied seasonally. Heavy grazing led to a significant decrease in herbaceous production and species richness. As a consequence, the monkeys' diet in this poor habitat showed a decreased plant species richness. Moreover, it incorporated fewer above-ground herbaceous resources, and a greater proportion of subterranean resources (especially hypogeous fungi and subterranean invertebrates such as earthworms, eggs and adults of earwigs, and ant's larvae) than the diet of monkeys inhabiting ungrazed forest. Cedar bark, cedar strobiles, earthworms, and earwigs were part of the monkeys' diet only in grazed forest. Monkeys in heavily grazed forest compensated for a lack of herbaceous foods by eating subterranean foods preferentially to tree and shrub products. The foods they consumed take longer to harvest and process than the seeds or leaves consumed by Barbary macaques in less heavily grazed forest habitats. Our results suggest that monkeys do differ in their diets according to the degree of habitat change induced by human activities. They also highlight the dietary flexibility of Barbary macaques as a key element that allows them to cope with degraded habitats. We later compare the dietary adjustments of Barbary macaques facing environmental change to dietary strategies of other macaques and temperate-zone primates. Am. J. Primatol. 76:679-693, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Borg C.,Roehampton University | Majolo B.,University of Lincoln | Qarro M.,Ecole Nationale Forestiere dIngenieurs | Semple S.,Roehampton University
Anthrozoos | Year: 2014

Primate tourism is a rapidly growing industry with the potential to provide considerable conservation benefits. However, assessing the impact of tourists on the animals involved is vital to ensure that the conservation value of primate tourism is maximized. In this study, we compared body size, coat condition, and endoparasite diversity of wild, adult Barbary macaques exposed to different levels of tourism. Study animals belonged to three groups located in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco: "green group" (GG) and "scarlet group" (SG) were exposed to negligible/no tourism, while the "tourist group" (TG) was exposed to very high levels of tourism. We used photogrammetry to quantify body size, scored coat condition from photographs, and quantified endoparasite species number from fecal samples. For both males and females, TG animals had deeper stomachs and wider hips than SG and GG animals. The coat condition of TG males was worse than that of SG and GG males, but no difference between groups was seen for females. Fecal samples from TG males contained a greater mean number of protozoan species than did samples from SG and GG males; for females a similar difference was found between TG and GG, but not between TG and SG. This study provides evidence that tourism has impacts on the body size, coat condition, and endoparasite diversity of Barbary macaques at this site. Further study is required to assess whether such effects are detrimental to the health of these animals. © ISAZ 2014. Source

Hanya G.,Kyoto University | Menard N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Qarro M.,Ecole Nationale Forestiere dIngenieurs | Tattou M.I.,Mohammed V University | And 8 more authors.
Primates | Year: 2011

Habitat, diet and leaf chemistry are compared between Japanese and Barbary macaques to reveal the similarities and differences in dietary adaptations of temperate primates living at the eastern and western extremes of the genus Macaca. Tree species diversity and proportion of fleshy-fruited species are much higher in Japan than in North Africa. Both species spend considerable annual feeding time on leaves. Japanese macaques prefer fruits and seeds over leaves, and Barbary macaques prefer seeds. These characteristics are adaptive in temperate regions where fruit availability varies considerably with season, since animals can survive during the lean period by relying on leaf and other vegetative foods. The two species are different with respect to the higher consumption of herbs by Barbary macaques, and the leaves consumed contain high condensed and hydrolysable tannin for Barbary but not for Japanese macaques. Barbary macaques supplement less diverse tree foods with herbs. Because of the low species diversity and high tannin content of the dominant tree species, Barbary macaques may have developed the capacity to cope with tannin. This supports the idea that digestion of leaves is indispensable to survive in temperate regions where fruit and seed foods are not available for a prolonged period during each year. © 2011 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer. Source

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