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Vacca G.M.,University of Sassari | Dhaouadi A.,University of Sassari | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Carcangiu V.,University of Sassari | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010

The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic structure at BMPR 1B, BMP15 and GDF9 prolificacy genes in five sheep breeds reared in Tunisia: Barbarine, Queue Fine de L'Ouest, Noire de Thibar, Sicilo-Sarde and D'man. Genomic DNA of 204 sheep was investigated for the FecBB (BMPR 1B), FecXR, FecXH, FecXI, FecXL, FecXG, FecXB (BMP15) and FecGH (GDF9) mutations. The sequence variability of the different DNA fragments utilised for genotyping was further investigated by Single Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing. All the above-mentioned mutations were absent in the five sheep breeds examined. SSCP analysis and sequencing allowed the detection of two nucleotide variations. A non-functional mutation (T/C transition at nt 747 of BMP15 cDNA known as B3) was found at the BMP15 gene, in the Noire de Thibar breed; this mutation was first detected in the Belclare sheep. A new nucleotide change G/A at nt 1159 of BMP15 cDNA, causing the amino acid change A119T in the mature peptide, was detected in the Barbarine breed for the first time. The highly prolific D'man ewes were monomorphic for the absence of all the known prolificacy alleles. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Ould Ahmed Salem C.B.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | Schneegans F.,Center National Delevage Et Of Recherche Veterinaire | Chollet J.Y.,Center National Delevage Et Of Recherche Veterinaire | Jemli M.H.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus. Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been performed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75%) and camels (76%) was significantly higher than that of sheep (24%) and cattle (23%) (P<0.0001). Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localizations in humans (50%) and camels (72.7%) and in the liver in sheep (76.1%) and cattle (82.3%). Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s) diversity of E. granulosus. Source

Bosch-Belmar M.,University of Salento | Bosch-Belmar M.,Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science Del Mare | M'Rabet C.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunis | Dhaouadi R.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses. © 2016 Bosch-Belmar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Salem I.B.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,INIA | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Kraiem K.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

In the current study follicular dynamics, pituitary function, ovulatory response and luteal activity of 30 maiden Barbarine sheep were analyzed according to oestrus occurrence and lambing outcome after oestrus synchronisation with cloprostenol. Animals were retrospectively classified in three groups named as O- (n = 7, ewes not displaying oestrus), O+L- (n = 7, ewes showing oestrus but failing to lamb) and O+L+ (n = 16; ewes showing oestrus and lambing thereafter). All the sheep ovulated and daily transrectal ultrasonographies revealed that preovulatory follicles were present at cloprostenol injection in all the animals. In sheep O+L+ and O+L-, 50% and 57% of the ovulatory follicles were the largest follicles at cloprostenol treatment (mean size of 4.1 ± 0.26 mm and 4.3 ± 0.74 mm, respectively). In O- ewes, the same percentage was higher (86%, P < 0.05 when compared to group O+L+; mean size of 4.0 ± 0.46 mm). The number of large follicles and the final diameter of the ovulatory follicles at oestrous tended thereafter to be higher in group O+L+ (1.4 ± 0.1 and 6.4 ± 0.2) than in groups O+L- (1 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 0.36) and O- (0.9 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.5, respectively). Conversely, the number of medium follicles at oestrus detection was higher in the group O+L- (2.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.05) than in the other two groups (1 ± 0.2 and 1 ± 0.3 for O+L+ and O- respectively). Timing of preovulatory LH surge was earlier for ewes O- (24.0 ± 4.75, P < 0.05) than for sheep O+L+ and O+L- (37.9 ± 2.45 h and 38.0 ± 4.75 h, respectively) and 94% of O+L+ ewes had a LH surge between 16 h and 64 h after cloprostenol injection compared to 57% in O+L- and O- groups (P < 0.05). Thus, maiden Barbarine sheep failing to display oestrus or conceive showed alterations in their follicular dynamics and, thereafter, pituitary function and ovulatory response. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Ben Salem I.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Ben Hamouda M.,Institution Of La Recherche Et Of Lenseignement Superieur Agricoles | Aloulou R.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Ben Sassi M.,Office de lElevage et des Paturages
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

This study investigated the sources of variation and the genetic profile of the spring fertility of 18 months old Barbarine maiden ewes. The trait was coded as 1 or 0 for maiden ewes that did, or did not, lamb in fall, respectively. Data were 3314 maiden ewe records daughters of 408 sires taken over 12 consecutive years and 9 flocks kept at the pilot sheep farm of Jebibina and Saouaf in semi arid Tunisia. Full pedigree was also available for most of the sires and dams of the maiden ewes. Average spring fertility of Barbarine maiden ewes in the studied environment is 0.85±0.35 with significant effects of the year, flock and the average daily growth between 10 and 30 days (ADG 10-30). These sources of variation were included in the linear animal model to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability estimate of spring fertility was 0.05±0.02 while genetic correlation between spring fertility and ADG 10-30 was -0.29. There was a very close and positive (P < 0.001) relationship between the sires' EBV for the studied trait and the average fertility of their daughters. The 20% top ranked sires had a mean 0.97 spring fertility of their daughters in comparison to only 0.75 for the 20% bottom ranked sires. The results obtained in this study show that direct selection on spring fertility of maiden ewes would generate negligible genetic progress. They also highlight the importance of considering the sires' EBV's in the development of a breeding plan for the Barbarine sheep breed. Source

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