Sidi Bou Saïd, Tunisia
Sidi Bou Saïd, Tunisia

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Bosch-Belmar M.,University of Salento | Bosch-Belmar M.,Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Science Del Mare | M'Rabet C.,National Agronomic Institute of Tunis | Dhaouadi R.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses. © 2016 Bosch-Belmar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center, Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie and Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

The study investigated, for cycling sheep, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard P protocol using progestogens priming with intravaginal devices and gonadotropin. In November 2014, 90 adult Menz ewes were assigned to either the P protocol, PGF treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11days apart or a GnRH treatment where the ewes had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. The ewes were naturally mated at the induced oestrus and the following 36days. Plasma progesterone revealed that 92% of the ewes were ovulating before synchronization and all, except one, ovulated in response to the applied treatments. All P ewes exhibited oestrus during the 96-hr period after the end of the treatments in comparison with only 79.3% and 73.3% for PGF and GnRH ewes, respectively (p<.05). Onset and duration of oestrus were affected by the hormonal treatment (p<.05); GnRH ewes showed oestrus earliest and had the shortest oestrous duration. Lambing rate from mating at the induced oestrus was lower for P than for PGF ewes (55.6% and 79.3%, respectively; p<.05). The same trait was also lower for P than for PGF and GnRH ewes (70.4%, 89.7% and 86.7%, respectively; p<.05) following the 36-day mating period. Prostaglandin and GnRH analogue-based protocols are promising alternatives for both controlled natural mating and fixed insemination of Menz sheep after the rainy season when most animals are spontaneously cycling.


PubMed | International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire, Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and CEVA Sante Animale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2015

This study tested the effect of melatonin treatment, initiated in late February on reproductive traits of young rams. A total of 14 young Barbarine rams were used. Seven animals were treated with three melatonin subcutaneous implants (Melatonin) on 28 February while the remaining rams remained untreated (Control). After 60 days of melatonin administration, scrotal circumference reached average values of 32.11.54 and 29.51.0cm for Melatonin and Control animals, respectively (P<0.05). Semen characteristics did not differ between groups; melatonin treatment tended (P=0.091) to increase sperm concentration 60 days after implantation when means reached 5.870.703 and 4.610.65410(9) spermatozoa/mL for Melatonin and Control rams, respectively. Melatonin treatment significantly affected total activity time, number of lateral approaches and mount attempts in comparison to controls. During a 6-h sampling period, mean plasma testosterone concentrations increased as a result of melatonin treatment (P<0.001) and testosterone pulse frequency averaged 3.452.24 and 1.251.0 (P=0.086) for Melatonin and Control rams. Data clearly suggest that abrupt treatment of young rams with melatonin implants in winter is sufficient to improve reproductive traits.


Salem I.B.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,INIA | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Kraiem K.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

In the current study follicular dynamics, pituitary function, ovulatory response and luteal activity of 30 maiden Barbarine sheep were analyzed according to oestrus occurrence and lambing outcome after oestrus synchronisation with cloprostenol. Animals were retrospectively classified in three groups named as O- (n = 7, ewes not displaying oestrus), O+L- (n = 7, ewes showing oestrus but failing to lamb) and O+L+ (n = 16; ewes showing oestrus and lambing thereafter). All the sheep ovulated and daily transrectal ultrasonographies revealed that preovulatory follicles were present at cloprostenol injection in all the animals. In sheep O+L+ and O+L-, 50% and 57% of the ovulatory follicles were the largest follicles at cloprostenol treatment (mean size of 4.1 ± 0.26 mm and 4.3 ± 0.74 mm, respectively). In O- ewes, the same percentage was higher (86%, P < 0.05 when compared to group O+L+; mean size of 4.0 ± 0.46 mm). The number of large follicles and the final diameter of the ovulatory follicles at oestrous tended thereafter to be higher in group O+L+ (1.4 ± 0.1 and 6.4 ± 0.2) than in groups O+L- (1 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 0.36) and O- (0.9 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.5, respectively). Conversely, the number of medium follicles at oestrus detection was higher in the group O+L- (2.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.05) than in the other two groups (1 ± 0.2 and 1 ± 0.3 for O+L+ and O- respectively). Timing of preovulatory LH surge was earlier for ewes O- (24.0 ± 4.75, P < 0.05) than for sheep O+L+ and O+L- (37.9 ± 2.45 h and 38.0 ± 4.75 h, respectively) and 94% of O+L+ ewes had a LH surge between 16 h and 64 h after cloprostenol injection compared to 57% in O+L- and O- groups (P < 0.05). Thus, maiden Barbarine sheep failing to display oestrus or conceive showed alterations in their follicular dynamics and, thereafter, pituitary function and ovulatory response. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire, CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Salento, Institute Superieur Of Peche Et Daquaculture Bizerte and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses.


Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,INIA | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Ben Salem H.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with cactus cladodes on follicular dynamics and ovulatory response of sheep reared in semi-arid areas. A total of 76 ewes were distributed into two equal groups supplemented with either concentrated feed or cactus cladodes. After 30days of supplementation, no differences were found between feeding regimens on the final live weight (LW; 41.5±0.6 and 42.1±0.7kg in the Concentrate and Cactus groups respectively) and body condition score (BCS; 1.8±0.3 and 1.8±0.4 for Concentrate and Cactus group respectively). Moreover, no differences were found between the initial and the final values of both LW and BCS; thus, there were no effects of supplementation on any of both parameters. Analysis of follicular population showed that, during the follicular phase induced by ram effect, the number of follicles reaching ovulatory size increased in both groups. However, the number was always higher in Cactus ewes and, at oestrus, Cactus ewes had 1.6±0.2 and Concentrate sheep had 1.2±0.2 large follicles (p<0.05). Thereafter, ovulation rate was affected by duration of supplementation; being higher in sheep fed with cactus for 6-10days (1.7±0.1) than in ewes supplied with cactus for more than 11days (1.3±0.1; p<0.05), in sheep fed with concentrate for 6-10days (1.2±0.1; p<0.01) and even than in individuals subjected to classical flushing with concentrate (1.3±0.1; p<0.05). © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Ould Ahmed Salem C.B.,Institute National Of Recherche En Sante Publique | Schneegans F.,Center National Delevage Et Of Recherche Veterinaire | Chollet J.Y.,Center National Delevage Et Of Recherche Veterinaire | Jemli M.H.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus. Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been performed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75%) and camels (76%) was significantly higher than that of sheep (24%) and cattle (23%) (P<0.0001). Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localizations in humans (50%) and camels (72.7%) and in the liver in sheep (76.1%) and cattle (82.3%). Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s) diversity of E. granulosus.


Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Ben Salem H.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Chalouati H.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Ben Salem I.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010

This trial investigated effects of cactus incorporation in the diet of the late pregnant-early suckling ewe on mammary gland secretions, blood metabolites, ovarian activity and lamb growth. Thirty-four single bearing ewes of the Barbarine breed aged 4.4 ± 1.7 years that were oestrus synchronised were selected. Animals were allocated to either barley treatment (n = 17) with daily feeding of 1.5 kg of oaten hay, 0.33 kg of barley and 0.11 kg of soybean meal per ewe or to a cactus treatment (n = 17), with feeding of 1.5 kg of oaten hay, 3 kg of cactus cladodes and 0.14 kg of soybean meal per ewe. The trial lasted approximately 60 days and started 4 weeks before lambing and continued until 30 days postpartum. Plasma concentrations of phosphorus, total protein, glucose and insulin before and after lambing slightly differed between ewes in both treatment groups and were more affected by time relative to lambing. Ewes fed cactus had higher (P < 0.05) plasma levels of calcium than their counterparts fed barley. Colostrum production did not differ between feeding regimes. The colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations averaged 160 and 149 g/l (S.E.M. = 12.9) in the barley and cactus groups, respectively. Milk yield at day 10 and 30 from birth was not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). Milk yield at 30 days was 1030 and 1041 g/day (S.E.M. = 96.9) for barley and cactus, respectively. Lamb live weight at 10 days of age was, respectively, 6.2 and 6.8 kg (S.E.M. = 0.23) for barley and cactus and identical (9.5 kg) at 30 days of age. The feeding regime did not affect ovarian activity at 30 days from lambing. It is concluded that cactus can totally replace barley grain in the diet of late pregnant-early suckling Barbarine ewes without affecting mammary secretions, resumption of ovarian activity or lamb growth. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Vacca G.M.,University of Sassari | Dhaouadi A.,University of Sassari | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Carcangiu V.,University of Sassari | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2010

The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic structure at BMPR 1B, BMP15 and GDF9 prolificacy genes in five sheep breeds reared in Tunisia: Barbarine, Queue Fine de L'Ouest, Noire de Thibar, Sicilo-Sarde and D'man. Genomic DNA of 204 sheep was investigated for the FecBB (BMPR 1B), FecXR, FecXH, FecXI, FecXL, FecXG, FecXB (BMP15) and FecGH (GDF9) mutations. The sequence variability of the different DNA fragments utilised for genotyping was further investigated by Single Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing. All the above-mentioned mutations were absent in the five sheep breeds examined. SSCP analysis and sequencing allowed the detection of two nucleotide variations. A non-functional mutation (T/C transition at nt 747 of BMP15 cDNA known as B3) was found at the BMP15 gene, in the Noire de Thibar breed; this mutation was first detected in the Belclare sheep. A new nucleotide change G/A at nt 1159 of BMP15 cDNA, causing the amino acid change A119T in the mature peptide, was detected in the Barbarine breed for the first time. The highly prolific D'man ewes were monomorphic for the absence of all the known prolificacy alleles. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition | Year: 2012

The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with cactus cladodes on follicular dynamics and ovulatory response of sheep reared in semi-arid areas. A total of 76 ewes were distributed into two equal groups supplemented with either concentrated feed or cactus cladodes. After 30 days of supplementation, no differences were found between feeding regimens on the final live weight (LW; 41.5 0.6 and 42.1 0.7 kg in the Concentrate and Cactus groups respectively) and body condition score (BCS; 1.8 0.3 and 1.8 0.4 for Concentrate and Cactus group respectively). Moreover, no differences were found between the initial and the final values of both LW and BCS; thus, there were no effects of supplementation on any of both parameters. Analysis of follicular population showed that, during the follicular phase induced by ram effect, the number of follicles reaching ovulatory size increased in both groups. However, the number was always higher in Cactus ewes and, at oestrus, Cactus ewes had 1.6 0.2 and Concentrate sheep had 1.2 0.2 large follicles (p < 0.05). Thereafter, ovulation rate was affected by duration of supplementation; being higher in sheep fed with cactus for 6-10 days (1.7 0.1) than in ewes supplied with cactus for more than 11 days (1.3 0.1; p < 0.05), in sheep fed with concentrate for 6-10 days (1.2 0.1; p < 0.01) and even than in individuals subjected to classical flushing with concentrate (1.3 0.1; p < 0.05).

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