Renaud-Gentie C.,UPSP GRAPPE |
Burgos S.,Ecole dIngenieurs de Changins |
Benoit M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014
Diversity of agricultural systems can be described at different scales in terms of three main types of variables: technical management of cropping systems, farming systems and food supply chains. We focus on the diversity of technical management routes (TMRs), defined as logical successions of technical options (TOs) designed by the farmers. The study, comparison and assessment of this great diversity of complex routes are impossible with classical agronomic experiments or exhaustive assessments such as life cycle assessment (LCA). Hence, the selection of representative cases is necessary. Multidimensional data analysis methods permit the characterization of a diversity of TMRs and the construction of typologies but do not allow the consideration of the specific associations of TOs constituting the various TMRs.The aim of this paper is threefold: (i) to propose a new combined method, "Typ-iti", to classify the field TMRs of farmers, to identify key TO associations and to select the most relevant cases for study; (ii) to test this method on vineyard management diversity using a panel of vineyard fields of Loire Valley producers; and (iii) to discuss the capability of the proposed Typ-iti method for use in the characterization and selection of cases of other agricultural systems at diverse scales.The example developed in this paper is the selection of vineyard management cases for grape LCA combined with grape quality evaluation. The cases were selected to represent the regional diversity of management practices. A detailed on-farm survey of management methods was performed on a diverse range of wine production estates in the Middle Loire Valley. The Typ-iti method was constructed and implemented on the survey database. It combines a multidimensional analysis of qualitative survey data and typology and partitioning (clustering) associated with data mining methods (frequent pattern mining search and association rules).The surveyed sample was partitioned into 5 types of management practices, 2 of which were organic and 3 conventional. The partitioning was driven primarily by choices involving pest management and floor management. Each type was characterized by specific TOs, specific associations of TOs and remarkable TMRs. The cases were chosen on the basis of these 3 parameters.The Typ-iti method can be applied to other crops and at different scales; the only limitation is the availability of precise information on the practices used by farmers in their fields. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Silvestri A.-C.,Ecole dIngenieurs de Changins |
Sabatier J.,Ecole dIngenieurs de Changins |
Ducruet J.,Ecole dIngenieurs de Changins
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2013
Aim: Wine is a very complex medium and is often evaluated according to its main components like alcohol, sugar, tannins, and acid levels. Proteins are rarely considered in this evaluation because their concentrations are only a few mg/L of wine. However, in an enological context, proteins appear to be more and more important, in particular for the stability of wines with protein haze problems. The study of proteins is less obvious in red wines than in white wines because the proteins are strongly tied to tannins, which makes their extraction and analysis even more difficult. Methods and results: This article describes a technique for the separation of proteins from tannins thanks to a methanol/chloroform emulsion in an acid solution. The protein extract, obtained after 4 hours, was later analyzed by SDS-Page and the protein profile of the wine established. Experiments showed that the protein profiles remained the same during the different stages of the winemaking process, whereas the overall amount of proteins decreased. Characteristic protein profiles of different grape varieties were established, and it was also possible to visualize the presence of exogenous proteins from fining agents like albumin and casein. Conclusion: This procedure allowed the extraction of proteins from 8 red wine samples within 4 hours. It also made it possible to analyze the extracted proteins by SDS-Page without tannin interference within 2 hours. Significance and impact of the study: This method shows in a very promising manner how proteins might be extracted from red wines after being separated from their tannins. The extracted proteins are then available for analysis using even more advanced techniques such as ESI-QTof or ELISA. © 2013 Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).
Kehrli P.,Ecole dIngenieurs de Changins |
Karp J.,Station de Recherche Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW |
Burdet J.-P.,Station de Recherche Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW |
Deneulin P.,Station de Recherche Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW |
And 3 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2012
The abundance of the European earwig Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera, Forficulidae) in European vineyards increased considerably over the last few years. Although earwigs are omnivorous predators that prey on viticultural pests such as grape moths, they are also known to erode berries and to transfer fungal spores. Moreover, they are suspected to affect the human perception of wines both directly by their processing with the grapes and indirectly by the contamination of grape clusters with their faeces. In this study we artificially contaminated grapes with F. auricularia adults and/or their faeces and determined the impact on aroma and taste of white 'Chasselas' and red 'Pinot noir' wines. Whereas the addition of five living adults/kg grapes affected the olfactory sensation of 'Chasselas' wines only marginally, 0.6 gram of earwig faeces/kg grapes had a strong effect on colour, aroma and the general appreciation of 'Chasselas' wines. Faeces-contaminated wines were less fruity and less floral, the aroma was described as faecal and they were judged to be of lower quality. The contamination of 'Pinot noir' grapes with four different densities of living earwig adults (e.g. 0, 5, 10 and 20 individuals/kg grapes) showed that only wines contaminated with more than 10 earwigs/kg grapes smelled and tasted significantly different than the uncontaminated control wine. Earwig-contaminated 'Pinot noir' wines were judged to be of lower quality. The descriptors "animal", "reductive", "vegetal", "acidic", "bitter" and "tannic" characterised their sensory perception. In conclusion, our results show that there is a real risk of wine contamination by F. auricularia. In particular, earwig faeces and earwig adults at densities above a threshold of 5 to 10 individuals/kg grapes have the potential to reduce the quality of wines. The evolution of earwig populations in vineyards should therefore be monitored carefully in order to anticipate problems during vinification.
Pratt B.,URS Corporation |
Riesen R.,Ecole dIngenieurs de Changins |
Johnston C.G.,Youngstown State University
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2012
Sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. The microbial community structure of riverbank PAH-contaminated sediments was investigated using phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Surface and subsurface riverbank sediment was collected from a highly contaminated site and from an uncontaminated site along the Mahoning River, OH. PAH concentrations, physical sediment characteristics, and other microbial community parameters (biomass as phospholipid phosphate (PLP) and activity) were also measured. PAHs were detected in all samples but were only quantifiable in the contaminated (250 μg/g g-1) subsurface sediment. Subsurface samples from both locations showed very similar PLP values and distribution of PLFAs, with 27-37 % of the microbial community structure being composed of sulfate reducing and other anaerobic bacteria. Principal components analysis indicated no correlation between PAH contamination and PLFA diversity. Although PLP and phospholipid fatty acid measurements of bacterial communities did not reflect the environmental differences among sites, the highly PAH-contaminated sediment showed the highest measured microbial activity (reduction of 1,200 nmol INT g-1 h-1), likely from a population adapted to environmental pollutants, rates that are much higher than measured in many uncontaminated soil and sediment systems. These data warrant further investigation into community structure at the genetic level and indicate potential for bioremediation by indigenous microbes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Maiwald M.,Ferdinand - Braun - Institute |
Muller A.,Ferdinand - Braun - Institute |
Selbeck J.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering |
Kathner J.,Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering |
And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015
In this work we present Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) as a potential spectroscopic tool for outdoor measurements in precision agriculture. A dual-wavelength diode laser at 785 nm is used as an excitation light source which provides an optical power up to 100 mW in cw-operation. Both emission lines for SERDS show single mode operation with a spectral width of ≤ 11 pm and a spectral distance of about 10 cm-1 over the whole power range. Raman experiments on apples are carried out and show Raman signals from wax layer and β-carotene. Raman investigations under daylight conditions are performed to simulate outdoor measurements. Here, polystyrene (PS) is used as test sample. A broadband signal together with narrow absorption lines of water vapor and Fraunhofer lines of singly ionized calcium (Ca II) mask the Raman lines of PS. Only the strong Raman signal at 999 cm-1 is visible. SERDS efficiently separates the Raman signals of PS from the background signals and a 14-fold improvement of the signal-tobackground noise ratio is achieved. © 2015 SPIE.