Ecofys bv

Utrecht, Netherlands

Ecofys bv

Utrecht, Netherlands
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: ENERGY.2009.2.9.2 | Award Amount: 1.80M | Year: 2010

The objectives are to create a framework for knowledge sharing and to develop a research roadmap for activities in the context of offshore renewable energy (RE). In particular, the project will stimulate collaboration in research activities leading towards innovative, cost efficient and environmentally benign offshore RE conversion platforms for wind, wave and other ocean energy resources, for their combined use as well as for the complementary use such as aquaculture and monitoring of the sea environment. The use of the offshore resources for RE generation is a relatively new field of interest. ORECCA will overcome the knowledge fragmentation existing in Europe and stimulate the key experts to provide useful inputs to industries, research organizations and policy makers (stakeholders) on the necessary next steps to foster the development of the ocean energy sector in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. A focus will be given to respect the strategies developed towards an integrated European maritime policy. The project will define the technological state of the art, describe the existing economical and legislative framework and identify barriers, constraints and needs within. ORECCA will enable collaboration of the stakeholders and will define the framework for future exploitation of offshore RE sources by defining 2 approaches: pilot testing of technologies at an initial stage and large scale deployment of offshore RE farms at a mature stage. ORECCA will finally develop a vision including different technical options for deployment of offshore energy conversion platforms for different target areas in the European seas and deliver integrated roadmaps for the stakeholders. These will define the strategic investment opportunities, the R&D priorities and the regulatory and socio-economics aspects that need to be addressed in the short to the medium term to achieve a vision and a strategy for a European policy towards the development of the offshore RE sector

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-19-2014 | Award Amount: 787.70K | Year: 2015

The OBJECTIVES of this proposal are as follows a) to define a subsequent initiative, referred to as the Pilot Case, providing a model for establishing a European CO2 infrastructure project, targeting a gateway transferring CO2 from source to sink. The gateway will form the first leg of a cross-border network, allowing multiple sources and multiple sinks. b) to make profound assessments of the substantial funding needs and available resources. c) to solicit strong actions by the partners involved (member states of the EU and other countries) with a three-step approach (Berlin model). The objectives will be ACHIEVED by acquiring commercial and legal input from various sources, such as industries, research alliances and institutes, investors and funding agencies, and engage industries capable of providing the knowledge of how to initiate the first gateway(s) of a future European CO2 transport system. This will include - knowledge gathering, involving structured intelligence processes, - outline strategies, - assessment of lead times, - scenario building, - consideration of funding synchronization issues. - assessing the economic potential(s), timing, and organisation towards the deployment of CCS within Europe, and gradually increase the deployment so that it applies to Europe as a whole, thus providing a Pan-European infrastructure for CO2 transport, - the initiation of a strict planning of the infrastructure, including the handling of specific policy issues and regulatory requirements. These objectives demonstrate a clear RELEVANCE to the H2020 Work Programme, calling for proposals for a pilot case addressing areas and challenges targeted in the competitive low-carbon energy call. This proposal pursues activities that support the use of research outcomes by industry of a project resulting from synchronised funding processes by at least three Member States, as addressed in the LCE-19 call.

Lamers P.,Ecofys Germany | Hamelinck C.,Ecofys bv | Junginger M.,University Utrecht | Faaij A.,University Utrecht
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Policies aimed to promote biofuels locally had tremendous effects on global market developments across the past decade. This article develops insights into the interaction of these policies and market forces via a comprehensive collection and analysis of international production and trade data. It shows that world biofuel production and trade has grown exponentially: from below 30 PJ in 2000 to 572 PJ in 2009 for biodiesel; from 340 PJ in 2000 to over 1540 PJ in 2009 for fuel ethanol. The EU has dominated world biodiesel, whereas the US and Brazil have led fuel ethanol production. World net biofuel trade reached 120-130 PJ in 2009 and was directed towards the most lucrative markets. For biodiesel, this has been the EU whose imports rose to 92 PJ in 2008 and remained at 70 PJ in 2009. Regarding fuel ethanol, both the US and the EU have been prime destinations for competitively priced exports, the vast majority of which originated in Brazil. International biofuel trade is both supply and demand driven. The demand side was shaped by support policies which generally increased the domestic market value of biofuels. Trade developed wherever these policies/prices were not accompanied by respective measures. It is found that import duties largely influenced trade volumes, whereas trade routes were mainly driven by tariff preferences. Trade regimes appear to have been designed and adapted unilaterally along national interests causing market disruptions, trade inefficiencies and disputes. To avoid these, it is important to explicitly consider international trade implications of national trade policies. A prerequisite is to improve the understanding of the underlying, complex and interwoven links within the market. The current lack of adequate, homogeneous, international reporting of biofuel production and trade statistics could be bridged via internationally standardized custom clarifications. Trade factor interrelations also need to be investigated further. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Handgraaf M.J.J.,Wageningen University | Van Lidth de Jeude M.A.,Ecofys bv | Appelt K.C.,Columbia University
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

Any solution to rising levels of CO2 depends on human behavior. One common approach to changing human behavior is rewarding desired behavior. Because financial incentives often have side effects that diminish efficacy, we predict that social rewards are more effective, because they invoke adherence to descriptive and injunctive social norms. We investigated this by measuring electricity use for 13. weeks at a Dutch firm. Each week, employees were rewarded for conserving energy. They either received monetary rewards (€0-€5) or social rewards (grade points with a descriptive comment). Rewards were either private or public. In both the short and long term, public rewards outperformed private rewards, and social rewards outperformed monetary rewards. This suggests that private monetary rewards, although popular, may be ineffective. Instead, public social rewards may be a more promising approach to stimulating energy conservation. We argue that this approach should be considered more frequently by policy-makers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Deng Y.Y.,Ecofys bv | Blok K.,Ecofys bv | van der Leun K.,Ecofys bv
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2012

Our study presents a new analysis for a possible transition to a fully sustainable global energy system. It looks in detail at the various energy-using activities within each demand sector, charting their volume and physical energy intensities over time. The approach pays particular attention to maximising energy efficiency through the use of best available technologies. This leads to a reduction in total energy demand and a high share of electricity. The decrease in overall demand is achieved despite a growth in both, population and volume of energy services. The electrification occurs primarily in the Buildings and Transport sectors.We conclude that we can build a global energy system by 2050 which sources 95% of its energy from sustainable sources following an ambitious, but feasible pathway. The pathway is considered achievable because it is based on currently available technology and realistic deployment rates. Policy measures are necessary in all sectors to provide incentives for the transition and we briefly discuss the requirements for these policies. The energy system we propose is robust with respect to (small) variations in the pathway as it only uses a small fraction of each of the sustainable sources. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Koornneef J.,Ecofys bv | Ramirez A.,University Utrecht | Turkenburg W.,University Utrecht | Faaij A.,University Utrecht
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2012

In this study, we identify and characterize known and new environmental consequences associated with CO2 capture from power plants, transport by pipeline and storage in geological formations. We have reviewed (analogous) environmental impact assessment procedures and scientific literature on carbon capture and storage (CCS) options. Analogues include the construction of new power plants, transport of natural gas by pipelines, underground natural gas storage (UGS), natural gas production and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. It is investigated whether crucial knowledge on environmental impacts is lacking that may postpone the implementation of CCS projects. This review shows that the capture of CO2 from power plants results in a change in the environmental profile of the power plant. This change encompasses both increase and reduction of key atmospheric emissions, being: NOx, SO 2, NH3, particulate matter, Hg, HF and HCl. The largest trade-offs are found for the emission of NOx and NH3 when equipping power plants with post-combustion capture. Synergy is expected for SO2 emissions, which are low for all power plants with CO2 capture. An increase in water consumption ranging between 32% and 93% and an increase in waste and by-product creation with tens of kilotonnes annually is expected for a large-scale power plant (1 GWe), but exact flows and composition are uncertain. The cross-media effects of CO2 capture are found to be uncertain and to a large extent not quantified. For the assessment of the safety of CO2 transport by pipeline at high pressure an important knowledge gap is the absence of validated release and dispersion models for CO2 releases. We also highlight factors that result in some (not major) uncertainties when estimating the failure rates for CO 2 pipelines. Furthermore, uniform CO2 exposure thresholds, detailed dose-response models and specific CO2 pipeline regulation are absent. Most gaps in environmental information regarding the CCS chain are identified and characterized for the risk assessment of the underground, non-engineered, part of the storage activity. This uncertainty is considered to be larger for aquifers than for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Failure rates are found to be heavily based on expert opinions and the dose-response models for ecosystems or target species are not yet developed. Integration and validation of various sub-models describing fate and transport of CO2 in various compartments of the geosphere is at an infant stage. In conclusion, it is not possible to execute a quantitative risk assessment for the non-engineered part of the storage activity with high confidence. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lamers P.,Ecofys Germany | Lamers P.,University Utrecht | Junginger M.,University Utrecht | Hamelinck C.,Ecofys bv | Faaij A.,University Utrecht
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

This paper presents and analyses international solid biofuel trade and concludes upon interactions with bioenergy policies and market factors. It shows that trade has grown from about 56 to 300 PJ between 2000 and 2010. Wood pellets grew strongest, i.e. from 8.5 to 120 PJ. Other relevant streams by 2010 included wood waste (77 PJ), fuelwood (76 PJ), wood chips (17 PJ), residues (9 PJ), and roundwood (2.4 PJ). Intra-EU trade covered two thirds of global trade by 2010. Underlying markets are highly heterogeneous; generally though trade evolved whenever supply side market factors coincided with existing/emerging demand patterns. Market factors and policies both defined trade volumes; though policy changes did not have as prominent effects on trade developments as in the liquid biofuel sector. Economic viability is the key limiting factor. Main exporting countries have low feedstock costs and already existing wood processing industries. Trade-relevant aspects are the commodity's monetary value; determined by its homogeneity, heating value, and bulk density. Consumer markets are diverse: in residential heating, demand/trade patterns have been influenced by local biofuel availability and short-term price signals, i.e. mainly price competitiveness and investment support for boilers/stoves. Commodities are mainly sourced regionally, but price differences have triggered a growing trade. The industrial segment is greatly influenced by policy frameworks but more mature (e.g. established routes). Trade is strictly linked to margins (defined mainly by policies) and combustion technologies. Uncertainties in the analysis are due to data gaps across and within databases regarding import/export declarations. To estimate bioenergy related trade, anecdotal data was indispensable. We believe datasets should be streamlined across international institutions to eventually enable reporting of global trade beyond digit-6-level. Research is needed to provide further insights into informal markets. Interrelations between trade factors are particularly relevant when mapping future trade streams under different policy/trade regime scenarios. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lam L.,Technical University of Delft | Lam L.,Ecofys bv | Bauer P.,Technical University of Delft
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper proposes a practical capacity fading model for Li-ion cells based on real operating conditions in electric vehicles (EVs). Numerous LiFePO4 cells have been cycled with a current profile containing regenerative braking to determine the capacity fading rate. The cells have been cycled at different temperatures with different initial state of charges, depth of discharges, or C-rates. From the experiments, an empirical model is constructed, which is capable of modeling the capacity fading in EV battery cells under most operating conditions. The capacity fading model can be used to estimate the state of health of EV battery cells, and simple ways to optimize the battery lifetime are proposed. © 2013 IEEE.

Cornelissen S.,Ecofys bv | Koper M.,Ecofys bv | Deng Y.Y.,Ecofys bv
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

We present a detailed analysis of the supply potential and use of biomass in the context of a transition to a fully renewable global energy system by 2050. We investigate bioenergy potential within a framework of technological choices and sustainability criteria, including criteria on land use and food security, agricultural and processing inputs, complementary fellings, residues and waste. This makes our approach more comprehensive, more stringent in the applied sustainability criteria and more detailed on both the supply potential and the demand side use of biomass than that of most other studies.We find that the potential for sustainable bioenergy from residues and waste, complementary fellings, energy crops and algae oil in 2050 is 340 EJ a -1 of primary energy. This potential is then compared to the demand for biomass-based energy in the demand scenario related to this study, the Ecofys Energy Scenario [1]. This scenario, after applying energy efficiency and non-bioenergy renewable options, requires a significant contribution of bioenergy to meet the remaining energy demand; 185 EJ a -1 of the 340 EJ a -1 potential supply. For land use for energy crops, we find that a maximum of 2,500,000 km 2 is needed of a 6,730,000 km 2 sustainable potential. For greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy, a 75%-85% reduction can be achieved compared to fossil references.We conclude that bioenergy can meet residual demand in the Ecofys Energy Scenario sustainably with low associated greenhouse gas emissions. It thus contributes to its achievement of a 95% renewable energy system globally by 2050. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Domestic heating represents the most dominant energy function in Dutch households nowadays. Using district heat from CHP (combined heat and power) by means of a NGCC (natural gas-fired combined cycle) plants is generally acknowledged as an effective option to reduce primary energy consumption for heating. However, methods to calculate energy savings from CHP differ widely. This paper compares a number of different methods, including the method from the EU CHP Directive, to estimate primary energy savings in comparison with the typically used domestic gas-fired condensing boiler. Real hourly CHP plant performance data is used. An estimation of the CO2 mitigation cost of delivering district heat to Dutch dwellings is made. We find that supplying dwellings with district heat from an NGCC-CHP saves energy, regardless of the calculation method and for a rather wide range of reference efficiencies. CO2 mitigation costs are acceptable from a social perspective (at discount rates up to 4%, excluding fuel taxes) and negative from a private perspective (at discount rates up to 10%, including fuel taxes). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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