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Tchertchian N.,Ecodesign and Optimization of Products Laboratory | Yvars P.-A.,Ecodesign and Optimization of Products Laboratory | Millet D.,Ecodesign and Optimization of Products Laboratory
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This article aims to respond to the absence of ecodesign tools for products in the early stages of the design process especially in the domain of complex systems. A complex system has numerous interdependent sub-systems, each of these having several design alternatives and variable conditions of use which affect the choice of technological solutions and environmental performance. A complex system is also one which evolves throughout its life cycle, interacting with the external environment. These characteristics rapidly result in a great number of configurations which must be assessed in order to identify the optimal system for the environment (using many criteria and over the whole of the life cycle). To ecodesign such a system in the early stages of the design process, we have investigated, from the literature, 3 different methodological approaches, each of which uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Approach 1 is the intuitive approach of the designer based on simple rules or on a Pareto combined with LCA. Approach 2 is based on Design of Experiments (DoE) combined with LCA and in approach 3 the Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP), based on the calculation of intervals, are combined with the LCA. These three methods (Pareto/LCA, DoE/LCA and CSP/LCA) have been tested in an ecodesign project for a complex system: a hybrid passenger ferry. The results of each method are evaluated according to the following criteria: time consumed, training, exploration of fields of possibility, interpretation of results and reusability. These results show that the CSP/LCA approach has certain advantages, in particular for exploring the fields of possibilities, interpreting results and the time saving through reusing results obtained for similar systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Andriankaja H.,Ecodesign and optimization of products Laboratory | Andriankaja H.,École Centrale Paris | Bertoluci G.,École Centrale Paris | Bertoluci G.,Agro ParisTech | Millet D.,Ecodesign and optimization of products Laboratory
Journal of Engineering Design | Year: 2013

For a growing number of firms, it is important that life-cycle assessments (LCAs) as well as the interpretation of the results obtained be carried out directly by the design teams. Unfortunately, the complexity of these two elements hinders the development of really eco-designed products. In this paper, we propose a generic approach allowing a company to develop a specific environmental assessment tool which enables designers to carry out simplified environmental assessments during the design process. To be more precise, the generic approach is based on the creation of two main features: impact functions to simplify the inherent complexity of LCAs and an environmental categorisation per product range to facilitate the use of environmental assessment results by the design team. This paper presents the development of such tool (named EcoT) in the context of automotive part suppliers and demonstrates its technical robustness on two case studies (dashboards and door panels). At the end of the paper, we discuss the usability and appropriability of the EcoT tool based on handling tests carried out by the company design team. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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