Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST.2008.1.1.4. | Award Amount: 25.04M | Year: 2010
The Project aims to develop new powertrain concepts able to give a substantial contribution to the achievement of a 50% CO2 reduction (based on 2005 figures) for passenger cars and light-duty vehicles for the new vehicle fleet in 2020. In particular, the research target on spark ignited (SI) engines powered vehicles is to achieve 40% lower CO2 emissions with respect to the 2005 values and 20% lower CO2 emission than the 2005 level for compression ignition (CI) engine powered vehicles. The objective includes also the target of near-zero emission levels (better than EURO 6) maintained during the useful life of the engines and keeping into account real life emissions, in line with the intention to amend the test procedures in emission legislation in view of real life emissions. Three different concepts will be investigated and implemented: - ultradownsizing gasoline engine integrating VVA, advanced turbocharging and Direct Injection; - two-stroke downsized diesel engine integrating HCCI and low temperature combustion modes; - combined combustion system based on Compression Ignited engine dedicated to new fuel formulation. Transversal supporting activities will be integrated for evaluating and assessing: advanced simulation methodologies for powertrain integration, advanced approaches for friction reduction (design solutions, coatings and surface treatments, lubricants), PEMS methodologies for real world emission analysis.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST-2007-1.1-03 | Award Amount: 21.34M | Year: 2008
Main objective of Integrated gas powertrain (InGas) Collaborative Project is to deploy a custom designed engine integrated with specific aftertreatment systems applied to a light duty vehicle able to achieve a 10% higher fuel conversion efficiency than that of a corresponding 2006 diesel vehicle and complying with an emission level lower than Euro 6. Additional features are advanced storage systems and vehicle architectures, as well as multi-grade fuel tolerance and fuel flexibility. To achieve the InGas targets, three main combustion technologies will be compared: Sub-Project A1 CNG technologies for passenger cars will develop a natural gas car powered by a 1.4 liter displacement engine using the sequential multi-point port gas injection and following the stoichiometric approach; Sub-Project A2 Turbo DI CNG engine will develop a natural gas car powered by a 1.8 liter displacement engine using the direct gas in-cylinder injection and following a lean burn approach; Sub-Project A3 Boosted lean burn gas engine will develop a natural gas light-duty vehicle powered by a 1.9 liter displacement engine using port gas injection or low pressure direct gas injection and following the ultra-lean combustion approach. Three main enabling technologies will be compared and assessed Sub-Project B0 Fuels for advanced CNG engines will define / supply the gas mixture of the requested quality, conduct analysis and propose solutions in order to affect in a flexible way storage, combustion, aftertreatment and performance of the CNG vehicles; Sub-Project B1 Gas storage for passenger car CNG engine will develop advanced gas storage and filling systems including specific components and gas sensors; Sub-Project B2 Aftertreatment for passenger car CNG engine will develop an aftertreatment system for natural gas vehicles having special regards to CH4 conversion efficiency and NOx abatement under stoichiometric and lean combustion operations.
Murtonen T.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland |
Aakko-Saksa P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland |
Kuronen M.,Neste Oil |
Mikkonen S.,Neste Oil |
Lehtoranta K.,Ecocat Oy
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants | Year: 2010
This study presents emission results measured with renewable and synthetic diesel fuels. Three engines and five city buses were studied. The efficiency of diesel oxidation catalyst combined to particle oxidation catalyst (POC®) was measured with two engines. The studied diesel fuels were EN590, FAME, HVO and GTL. In most cases all regulated emissions decreased with HVO and GTL fuels compared to conventional EN590 diesel fuel. With FAME, the NOx emissions were higher compared to EN590, but other emissions were reduced. Alternative fuels had a positive effect on emissions, which are considered harmful to human health. © 2009 SAE International.
Bounechada D.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Groppi G.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Forzatti P.,Polytechnic of Milan |
Kallinen K.,Ecocat Oy |
Kinnunen T.,Ecocat Oy
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2012
The behavior of a commercial Ce-Zr promoted Pd-Rh/Al 2O 3 catalyst for the abatement of methane from the exhausts of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) is studied in presence of large amounts of water under both stationary conditions and by periodically switching from lean to rich feed. Under stationary conditions with both stoichiometric (λ=1.00) and lean (λ=1.02) feed catalyst deactivation is observed after prolonged exposure to the reaction mixture. Periodic rich pulses in a constant lean feed gas result in the stabilization of catalytic performances. A higher methane conversion than those obtained with stoichiometric and lean feed mixtures is observed under rich conditions, during an experiment carried out by performing lean pulses (λ=1.02) in a constant rich feed gas (λ=0.98). The analysis of reactants conversion and products distribution suggests that different chemistries are involved under lean and rich conditions. Only reactions of complete oxidation of H 2, CO, CH 4 and NO occur under excess of oxygen, whereas under rich conditions NO reduction, CH 4 steam reforming and water gas shift also occur. The effect of symmetric oscillation of the exhausts composition around stoichiometry is also addressed by periodically switching from slightly rich to slightly lean composition with different oscillation amplitudes (Δλ=±0.01, ±0.02 and ±0.03). Higher and more stable methane conversion performances are obtained than those observed under constant λ operations. The presence of a more active PdO/Pd 0 state is suggested to explain the enhancement of catalytic performances. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Maunula T.,Ecocat Oy |
Kinnunen T.,Ecocat Oy |
Iivonen M.,AGCO Sisu Power
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011
The emission regulations for mobile off-road applications are following on-road trends by a short delay. The latest Stage 3B and 4 emission limits mean a gradual implementation of oxidation and SCR catalysts as well as particulate filters with off-road machines/vehicles in the 2010's. The driving conditions and test cycles differ from on-road truck applications which have been the first design base for off-road aftertreatment technologies. Aftertreatment systems for Stage 4 were first analyzed and they will include oxidation catalysts, a NO x reduction catalyst (SCR or LNT), a particulate filter and possibly units for urea hydrolysis and ammonia slip removal. The design and durability of V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 -WO 3 catalysts based on metallic substrates were investigated by engine bench and field experiments. NO x emissions were measured with 6.6 and 8.4 litres engines designed for agricultural and industrial machinery. The criteria NO x conversions with NH 3 slip below 20 ppm and varied catalyst volumes were used as a design base for dosing strategies over the life-time of the system. The target NO x conversion over ISO 8178 cycle was about 50% for Stage 3A with first SCR engines and will be 80-95% for Stage 4, which high conversion target has a crucial effect on the required catalyst amount and dosing strategy margins, particularly after ageing. NO x conversions were stable in the designed urea dosing values after engine bench ageing for 3000 hours and field ageing for 8000 hours. Durability and reaction studies were applied to the SCR catalyst design for Stage 3B and 4. In thermogravimetric and mass spectrometric (TGA-MS) analysis, no vanadium evaporation was detected below 1000°C but near to the melting point (690°C) of V 2 O 5, the catalytic activity of vanadium-SCR catalyst was dropped due to sintering of active sites. The commercial vanadium-SCR systems were designed to the maximum temperatures of 600°C. The characterization of 3000 and 8000 hours aged catalysts revealed the axial accumulation of elements (P, Zn, Ca, Na, K, S, Si, Fe) originating from lubrication oil and fuel. However, only the short front part of the catalyst had a higher concentration of deactivating compounds correlating to a decreased NO x performance by laboratory experiments. This long-term deactivation has also been included into the SCR catalyst design for off-road applications by the target NO x conversions. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.
Pitkaaho S.,University of Oulu |
Ojala S.,University of Oulu |
Maunula T.,Ecocat Oy |
Savimaki A.,Ecocat Oy |
And 2 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011
Catalytic oxidation of dichloromethane (DCM) and perchloroethylene (PCE) over different alumina s upported noble metal catalysts in moist conditions was studied. Two component mixture tests with dimethylformamide (DMF), oxitol (EGEE), ethanol and ethylene were also performed. DCM and PCE were more difficult to oxidize than DMF and EGEE, the light-off temperature (T50) of DCM and PCE was 280°C and 482°C, respectively. In general, the addition of V2O5 improved the activity and selectivity of the studied catalysts over the oxidation of both chlorinated VOCs. In DCM oxidation Pt catalysts were more active than Pd-containing catalysts, contrary to PCE oxidation where Pd-containing catalysts were more active. The presence of DMF enhanced the DCM conversion decreasing the T50 value by ∼130°C. The presence of both oxitol and ethanol lowered the conversion of DCM. Removing the water feed from the inlet affected the conversion of DCM only a little but on the yield of HCl it had a major effect. In PCE oxidation the impact of additional compounds tested in this study was minor. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Hirvi J.T.,University of Eastern Finland |
Kinnunen T.-J.J.,Ecocat Oy |
Suvanto M.,University of Eastern Finland |
Pakkanen T.A.,University of Eastern Finland |
Norskov J.K.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010
Density functional calculations were performed in order to investigate CO oxidation on two of the most stable bulk PdO surfaces. The most stable PdO(100) surface, with oxygen excess, is inert against CO adsorption, whereas strong adsorption on the stoichiometric PdO(101) surface leads to favorable oxidation via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The reaction with a surface oxygen atom has an activation energy of 0.66 eV, which is comparable to the lowest activation energies observed on metallic surfaces. However, the reaction rate may be limited by the coverage of molecular oxygen. Actually, the reaction with the site blocking molecular oxygen is slightly more favorable, enabling also possible formation of carbonate surface species at low temperatures. The extreme activity of strongly bonded surface oxygen atoms is more greatly emphasized on the PdO(100)-O surface. The direct reaction without adsorption, following the Eley-Rideal mechanism and taking advantage of the reaction tunnel provided by the adjacent palladium atom, has an activation energy of only 0.24 eV. The reaction mechanism and activation energy for the palladium activated CO oxidation on the most stable PdO(100)-O surface are in good agreement with experimental observations. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Ecocat Oy | Date: 2014-04-23
The invention relates to an exhaust gas thermal enhancer (TE) to be installed to gas pipe (PIP) for increasing exhaust gas temperature in gas fluid (FLUID) to start the reaction of removing methane from gas fluid (FLUID) in diesel engine exhaust gas or equivalent gas fluids. The invention also relates to a method for manufacturing and to a method to use such an exhaust gas thermal enhancer. Said exhaust gas thermal enhancer (TE) comprise at least one front heater (FOC) for heating said gas fluid (FLUID) and upstream to said front heater (FOC) there is at least one fuel injector (FUI) for injecting fuel (FUEL) and at least one fuel vaporizer (VAP), which is a separate structure or integrated to said fuel injector (FUI), and that downstream to said front heater (FOC) there is at least one oxidation catalyst (OC1, OC2) for catalyzing the oxidation of methane..
Ecocat Oy | Date: 2011-05-17
The object of the invention is a porous sheet(s) for treating exhaust gases of combustion engines in open channels. According to the invention at least part of the porous sheet has a covering support having pores over 10 nm and coarse particles over 1.4 m.
Ecocat Oy | Date: 2012-01-24
Catalytic converters for small engines and combustion engines; catalytic converters for heavy duty vehicle engines; catalytic converters for light duty vehicle engines; component parts and fittings for the aforesaid goods sold in conjunction therewith. Scientific, technological and research services relating to catalytic converters for small engines and combustion engines, catalytic converters for heavy duty vehicles, passenger vehicles and light duty passenger vehicles.