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Oulu, Finland

Hirvi J.T.,University of Eastern Finland | Kinnunen T.-J.J.,Ecocat Oy | Suvanto M.,University of Eastern Finland | Pakkanen T.A.,University of Eastern Finland | Norskov J.K.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2010

Density functional calculations were performed in order to investigate CO oxidation on two of the most stable bulk PdO surfaces. The most stable PdO(100) surface, with oxygen excess, is inert against CO adsorption, whereas strong adsorption on the stoichiometric PdO(101) surface leads to favorable oxidation via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The reaction with a surface oxygen atom has an activation energy of 0.66 eV, which is comparable to the lowest activation energies observed on metallic surfaces. However, the reaction rate may be limited by the coverage of molecular oxygen. Actually, the reaction with the site blocking molecular oxygen is slightly more favorable, enabling also possible formation of carbonate surface species at low temperatures. The extreme activity of strongly bonded surface oxygen atoms is more greatly emphasized on the PdO(100)-O surface. The direct reaction without adsorption, following the Eley-Rideal mechanism and taking advantage of the reaction tunnel provided by the adjacent palladium atom, has an activation energy of only 0.24 eV. The reaction mechanism and activation energy for the palladium activated CO oxidation on the most stable PdO(100)-O surface are in good agreement with experimental observations. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. Source


Murtonen T.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Aakko-Saksa P.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Kuronen M.,Neste Oil | Mikkonen S.,Neste Oil | Lehtoranta K.,Ecocat Oy
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants | Year: 2010

This study presents emission results measured with renewable and synthetic diesel fuels. Three engines and five city buses were studied. The efficiency of diesel oxidation catalyst combined to particle oxidation catalyst (POC®) was measured with two engines. The studied diesel fuels were EN590, FAME, HVO and GTL. In most cases all regulated emissions decreased with HVO and GTL fuels compared to conventional EN590 diesel fuel. With FAME, the NOx emissions were higher compared to EN590, but other emissions were reduced. Alternative fuels had a positive effect on emissions, which are considered harmful to human health. © 2009 SAE International. Source


Pitkaaho S.,University of Oulu | Ojala S.,University of Oulu | Kinnunen T.,Ecocat Oy | Silvonen R.,Ehovoc Oy | Keiski R.L.,University of Oulu
Topics in Catalysis | Year: 2011

Development of a reliable laboratory scale test for the design of industrial catalysts is crucial. In this article, different laboratory-scale tests were compared with an industrial scale CVOCs treatment. With dichloromethane (DCM) the laboratory scale test results corresponded well to the industrial scale oxidation results. However, the perchloroethylene (PCE) conversions measured in industry were always higher than what was achieved in the laboratory scale indicating that the industrial scale catalytic incinerator operating in transient conditions is highly beneficial in PCE oxidation. It was clearly shown that in order to design high-quality laboratory scale experiments, information on complete composition and total concentration of the emission is needed but also different types of catalytic tests need to be used depending on the industrial reactor. In addition, the catalysts' performance in an industrial VOC abatement unit was examined as the oxidation efficiencies of DCM, PCE and other hydrocarbons (OHC) were compared after 3, 10 and 23 months of operation. After 23 months and 13,065 operating hours, no significant decrease in the activity of the catalysts was observed showing that the used noble metal catalysts are highly resistant towards these demanding conditions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


The object of the invention is a porous sheet(s) for treating exhaust gases of combustion engines in open channels. According to the invention at least part of the porous sheet has a covering support having pores over 10 nm and coarse particles over 1.4 m.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SST.2008.1.1.4. | Award Amount: 25.04M | Year: 2010

The Project aims to develop new powertrain concepts able to give a substantial contribution to the achievement of a 50% CO2 reduction (based on 2005 figures) for passenger cars and light-duty vehicles for the new vehicle fleet in 2020. In particular, the research target on spark ignited (SI) engines powered vehicles is to achieve 40% lower CO2 emissions with respect to the 2005 values and 20% lower CO2 emission than the 2005 level for compression ignition (CI) engine powered vehicles. The objective includes also the target of near-zero emission levels (better than EURO 6) maintained during the useful life of the engines and keeping into account real life emissions, in line with the intention to amend the test procedures in emission legislation in view of real life emissions. Three different concepts will be investigated and implemented: - ultradownsizing gasoline engine integrating VVA, advanced turbocharging and Direct Injection; - two-stroke downsized diesel engine integrating HCCI and low temperature combustion modes; - combined combustion system based on Compression Ignited engine dedicated to new fuel formulation. Transversal supporting activities will be integrated for evaluating and assessing: advanced simulation methodologies for powertrain integration, advanced approaches for friction reduction (design solutions, coatings and surface treatments, lubricants), PEMS methodologies for real world emission analysis.

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