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Boudreault-Bouchard A.-M.,University of Quebec at Chicoutimi | Dion J.,University of Quebec at Chicoutimi | Hains J.,University of Quebec at Chicoutimi | Laberge L.,University of Quebec at Chicoutimi | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Adolescence | Year: 2013

This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Source


Martin J.S.,University of Quebec | Martin J.S.,Laval University | Laberge L.,ECOBES Recherche et Transfert | Laberge L.,University of Quebec at Chicoutimi | And 6 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2015

Eveningness has been suggested as a facilitating factor in adaptation to shift work, with several studies reporting evening chronotypes (E-types) as better sleepers when on night shifts. Conversely, eveningness has been associated with more sleep complaints during day shifts. However, sleep during day shifts has received limited attention in previous studies assessing chronotypes in shift workers. Environmental light exposure has also been reported to differ between chronotypes in day workers. Activity is also known to provide temporal input to the circadian clock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare objective sleep, light exposure and activity levels between chronotypes, both during the night and day shifts. Thirty-nine patrol police patrol officers working on a fast rotating shift schedule (mean age±SD: 28.9±3.2 yrs; 28 males) participated in this study. All subjects completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and activity were monitored with actigraphy (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics, Bend, OR) for four consecutive night shifts and four consecutive day shifts (night work schedule: 00:00h-07:00h; day work schedule: 07:00h-15:00h). Sleep and activity parameters were calculated with Actiware software. MEQ scores ranged from 26 to 56; no subject was categorized as Morning-type. E-types (n=13) showed significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer snooze time and spent more time awake after sleep onset than Intermediate-types (I-types, n=26) for both the night and day shifts. E-types also exhibited shorter and more numerous sleep bouts. Furthermore, when napping was taken into account, E-types had shorter total sleep duration than I-types during the day shifts. E-types were more active during the first hours of their night shift when compared to I-types. Also, all participants spent more time active and had higher amount of activity per minute during day shifts when compared to night shifts. No difference was found regarding light exposure between chronotypes. In conclusion, sleep parameters revealed poorer sleep quality in E-types for both the night and day shifts. These differences could not be explained by sleep opportunity, light exposure or activity levels. This study challenges the notion that E-types adapt better to night shifts. Further studies must verify whether E-types exhibit lower sleep quality than Morning-types. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Laberge L.,ECOBES Recherche et Transfert | Laberge L.,University of Quebec at Chicoutimi | Laberge L.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Gagnon C.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Dauvilliers Y.,Service de Neurologie
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports | Year: 2013

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) represents the 1 chronic neuromuscular disease with the most prominent sleep disorders, including excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep apneas, periodic leg movements during sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation. The large majority of DM1 patients complain about EDS, which may have a deleterious impact on work, domestic responsibilities, social life, and quality of life. Here, we review the extant literature and report that studies are largely supportive of the view that DM1-related EDS is primarily caused by a central dysfunction of sleep regulation rather than by sleep-related disordered breathing (SRDB) or sleep fragmentation. The pathogenesis of EDS in DM1 still remains unclear but several arguments favor a model in which brain/brainstem nuclear accumulations of toxic expanded DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene are responsible for aberrant genes expression in modifying alternative splicing. Regarding management, early recognition, and treatment of SRDB with nocturnal noninva-sive mechanical ventilation is first mandatory. However, despite its appropriate management, EDS often persists and may require a psychostimulant but no consensus has been yet established. Further studies are needed to clarify the discrepancies between daytime sleepiness/fatigue complaints and subjective/objective measurement of daytime sleepiness, the role of cognitive impairment and apathy in this relationship, and its reversibility with appropriate management. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source


Laberge L.,ECOBES Recherche et Transfert
Current neurology and neuroscience reports | Year: 2013

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) represents the 1 chronic neuromuscular disease with the most prominent sleep disorders, including excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep apneas, periodic leg movements during sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation. The large majority of DM1 patients complain about EDS, which may have a deleterious impact on work, domestic responsibilities, social life, and quality of life. Here, we review the extant literature and report that studies are largely supportive of the view that DM1-related EDS is primarily caused by a central dysfunction of sleep regulation rather than by sleep-related disordered breathing (SRDB) or sleep fragmentation. The pathogenesis of EDS in DM1 still remains unclear but several arguments favor a model in which brain/brainstem nuclear accumulations of toxic expanded DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene are responsible for aberrant genes expression in modifying alternative splicing. Regarding management, early recognition, and treatment of SRDB with nocturnal noninvasive mechanical ventilation is first mandatory. However, despite its appropriate management, EDS often persists and may require a psychostimulant but no consensus has been yet established. Further studies are needed to clarify the discrepancies between daytime sleepiness/fatigue complaints and subjective/objective measurement of daytime sleepiness, the role of cognitive impairment and apathy in this relationship, and its reversibility with appropriate management. Source


Martin J.S.,ECOBES Recherche et Transfert | Martin J.S.,Laval University | Hebert M.,Laval University | Ledoux E.,Institute Of Recherche Robert Sauve En Sante Et En Securite Du Travail | And 3 more authors.
Chronobiology International | Year: 2012

Students who work during the school year face the potential of sleep deprivation and its effects, since they have to juggle between school and work responsibilities along with social life. This may leave them with less time left for sleep than their nonworking counterparts. Chronotype is a factor that may exert an influence on the sleep of student workers. Also, light and social zeitgebers may have an impact on the sleep-related problems of this population. This study aimed to document sleep, light exposure patterns, social rhythms, and work-related fatigue of student workers aged 1921 yrs and explore possible associations with chronotype. A total of 88 student workers (mean±SD: 20.18±.44 yrs of age; 36 males/52 females) wore an actigraph (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics,Bend, OR) and filled out the Social Rhythm Metric for two consecutive weeks during the school year. Also, they completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion/Recovery Scale (OFER). Repeated and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs), Pearson's chi-square tests, and correlation coefficients were used for statistical comparisons. Subjects slept an average of 06:28h/night. Actigraphic sleep parameters, such as sleep duration, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep latency, did not differ between chronotypes. Results also show that evening types (n=17) presented lower subjective sleep quality than intermediate types (n=58) and morning types (n=13). Moreover, evening types reported higher levels of chronic work-related fatigue, exhibited less regular social rhythms, and were exposed to lower levels of light during their waking hours (between 2 and 11 h after wake time) as compared to intermediate types and morning types. In addition, exposure to light intensities between 100 and 500 lux was lower in evening types than in intermediate types and morning types. However, bright light exposure (≥1000 lux) did not differ between chronotypes. In conclusion, results suggest that student workers may constitute a high-risk population for sleep deprivation. Evening types seemed to cope less well with sleep deprivation, reporting poorer sleep quality and higher levels of work-related fatigue than intermediate types and morning types. The higher chronic work-related fatigue of evening types may be linked to their attenuated level of light exposure and weaker social zeitgebers. These results add credence to the hypothesis that eveningness entails a higher risk of health-impairing behaviors. Copyright © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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