ECO MED SARL

Marseille, France

ECO MED SARL

Marseille, France
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Guittonny-Philippe A.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | Guittonny-Philippe A.,ECO MED SARL | Petit M.-E.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | Masotti V.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2015

Constructed wetlands (CWs) offer an alternative to traditional industrial wastewater treatment systems that has been proved to be efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Most of the time, CWs are planted with proliferative species such as Phragmites australis or with plants originating from nurseries, both representing a risk for the natural biodiversity conservation of aquatic ecosystems located downstream of the CWs. For the removal of metals and organic pollutant mixtures present in industrial effluents, it is necessary to select tolerant plant species that are able to produce a high aboveground biomass and to develop a healthy belowground system. Wild plant species growing in aquatic bodies at industrial outfalls could constitute suitable tolerant species to use in CWs for industrial effluent treatment. To test this hypothesis, we assessed, under laboratory conditions (using an experimental design), the tolerance to mixtures of metals (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) or/and organic pollutants (THC, PHE, PYR, LAS) of five European sub-cosmopolitan native macrophytes (Alisma lanceolatum, Carex cuprina, Epilobium hirsutum, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus inflexus) that had been collected in a polluted Mediterranean wetland, after a field study (crossing ecological relevés and analyses of contaminant concentrations in water and sediments). Our results demonstrated that research on phytoremediation of industrial effluents should focus much more on the use of native macrophytes growing at short distances from industrial discharges (such as C. cuprina in this study), and that root/shoot ratio, aerial height and proportion of green leaves are good and cost-effective indicators of plant tolerance to metals and organic pollutant mixtures in laboratory studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Guittonny-Philippe A.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | Guittonny-Philippe A.,ECO MED SARL | Masotti V.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | Claeys-Bruno M.,Aix - Marseille University | And 7 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2015

Various industrial processes and anthropogenic activities in urban areas induce a release of metals, metalloids and organic pollutants. Phytoremediation of co-contaminated waters in constructed wetlands is a promising solution for reducing the impact on natural environments. In order to improve the design and management of constructed wetlands, more knowledge is needed concerning the effect of organic pollutants on plant metal and metalloid uptake. In this study, the effects of a mixture of organic pollutants commonly found in industrial effluents (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, anionic detergent) on the uptake of ten metals and metalloids (MM), i.e. Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, by five helophytes having a wide European distribution were studied. Main effects of plant species and pollutant conditions on metal uptake and interactions between factors were determined by a statistical treatment of a microcosm experiment. Overall, the order of element uptake in plants was Fe>AlMn>Cr, Ni, Zn,>Cu>As, Cd, Pb, which was consistent with relative concentrations in the rhizosphere environment of microcosms. Larger amounts of metals were retained in belowground biomass of plants than in aboveground parts. Statistical analysis showed that organic pollutants enhanced the accumulation of Mn in whole plants and the retention of Fe in belowground parts, while they reduced the accumulation of Cd, Ni, and Zn in whole plants and the retention of Cu in belowground parts. For the other MM (Al, As, Cr, Pb), effects were variable, depending on the plant species. Among the five plants tested, Carex cuprina generally removed the highest quantities of MM, which was the result of both a high metal accumulation capacity and high biomass production. Nevertheless, no significant proportion of the MM total loading could be removed in plants' aboveground parts. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Guittonny-Philippe A.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | Guittonny-Philippe A.,ECO MED SARL | Masotti V.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | Rabier J.,CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental | And 4 more authors.
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

For the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants and metals in constructed wetlands (CWs), phytoindicators may help in guiding management practices for plants and optimizing phytoremediation processes. Hairy willow-herb (Epilobium hirsutum L.) is a fast growing species commonly found in European CWs that could constitute a suitable phytoindicator of metal toxicity. E. hirsutum was exposed for 113 days in microcosm CWs, to a metal and metalloid mixture (MPM, containing Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn), an organic pollutant mixture (OPM, containing hydrocarbonsC10-C40, phenanthrene, pyrene, anionic detergent LAS) and an organic pollutant and metal and metalloid mixture (OMPM), separately and at concentration levels mimicking levels of industrial effluents. Analyses of metal and As concentrations in biomass, and different biometric and physiological measurements were performed. Results showed that metal uptake patterns were affected by the type of pollutant mixture, resulting in variation of toxicity symptoms in E. hirsutum plants. Some of them appeared to be similar under MPM and OMPM conditions (leaf chlorosis and tip-burning, decrease of green leaf proportion), while others were characteristic of each pollutant mixture (MPM: Decrease of water content, increase of phenol content; OMPM: reduction of limb length, inhibition of vegetative reproduction, increase of chlorophyll content and Nitrogen balance index). Results emphasize the potential of E. hirsutum as a bioindicator species to be used in European CWs treating water with metal, metalloid and organic pollutants. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | CNRS Mediterranean Institute for Biodiversity and Ecology Marine and Continental, ECO MED SARL, University of Strasbourg and Aix - Marseille University
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2014

Constructed wetlands (CWs) offer an alternative to traditional industrial wastewater treatment systems that has been proved to be efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Most of the time, CWs are planted with proliferative species such as Phragmites australis or with plants originating from nurseries, both representing a risk for the natural biodiversity conservation of aquatic ecosystems located downstream of the CWs. For the removal of metals and organic pollutant mixtures present in industrial effluents, it is necessary to select tolerant plant species that are able to produce a high aboveground biomass and to develop a healthy belowground system. Wild plant species growing in aquatic bodies at industrial outfalls could constitute suitable tolerant species to use in CWs for industrial effluent treatment. To test this hypothesis, we assessed, under laboratory conditions (using an experimental design), the tolerance to mixtures of metals (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) or/and organic pollutants (THC, PHE, PYR, LAS) of five European sub-cosmopolitan native macrophytes (Alisma lanceolatum, Carex cuprina, Epilobium hirsutum, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus inflexus) that had been collected in a polluted Mediterranean wetland, after a field study (crossing ecological relevs and analyses of contaminant concentrations in water and sediments). Our results demonstrated that research on phytoremediation of industrial effluents should focus much more on the use of native macrophytes growing at short distances from industrial discharges (such as C. cuprina in this study), and that root/shoot ratio, aerial height and proportion of green leaves are good and cost-effective indicators of plant tolerance to metals and organic pollutant mixtures in laboratory studies.


Guittonny-Philippe A.,Aix - Marseille University | Guittonny-Philippe A.,ECO MED SARL | Masotti V.,Aix - Marseille University | Combroux I.,University of Strasbourg | And 7 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

Industrial effluents discharged into the environment may have ecotoxic effects even if they come up to regulatory standards. Chemical evaluation of treatment performance by end-of-pipe treatment systems is thus not sufficient, especially when mixtures of metallic and organic contaminants are concerned. Given that contamination may alter biological characteristics of the environment, biomonitoring studies may provide information on integrated ecotoxical effects. However, there is a need for bioassays purpose-designed for direct use at industrial sites. Many biomonitoring tools already exist and have been proved to be efficient for evaluating the ecotoxicity of contaminated waters, but most of them require laboratory equipment. In this study, an experiment in microcosms under controlled conditions of pollution was carried out to assess the morphological responses of five helophytes exposed to mixtures of organic and/or metallic pollutants. The criteria of plant growth and development, i.e. aerial elongation and leaf senescence, that were the most relevant for reflecting the ecotoxicity of contaminant mixtures and that could be monitored on-site with a user-friendly method, were then selected. Focusing on these selected criteria, a new bioindicator tool, named the Helophyte Development Index (HDI), was created. Our results suggest that the HDI is a promising tool to use on-site for assessing the ecological state of waters released in aquatic environment by industrial factories, following the recommendations of the European Water Agency. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Guittonny-Philippe A.,Aix - Marseille University | Guittonny-Philippe A.,ECO MED SARL | Masotti V.,Aix - Marseille University | Hohener P.,Aix - Marseille University | And 3 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2014

In the Mediterranean area, surface waters often have low discharge or renewal rates, hence metal contamination from industrialised catchments can have a high negative impact on the physico-chemical and biological water quality. In a context of climate and anthropological changes, it is necessary to provide an integrative approach for the prevention and control of metal pollution, in order to limit its impact on water resources, biodiversity, trophic network and human health. For this purpose, introduction of constructed wetlands (CWs) between natural aquatic ecosystems and industrialised zones or catchments is a promising strategy for eco-remediation. Analysis of the literature has shown that further research must be done to improve CW design, selection and management of wetland plant species and catchment organisation, in order to ensure the effectiveness of CWs in Mediterranean environments. Firstly, the parameters of basin design that have the greatest influence on metal removal processes must be identified, in order to better focus rhizospheric processes on specific purification objectives. We have summarised in a single diagram the relationships between the design parameters of a CW basin and the physico-chemical and biological processes of metal removal, on the basis of 21 mutually consistent papers. Secondly, in order to optimise the selection and distribution of helophytes in CWs, it is necessary to identify criteria of choice for the plant species that will best fit the remediation objectives and environmental and economic constraints. We have analysed the factors determining plant metal uptake efficiency in CWs on the basis of a qualitative meta-analysis of 13 studies with a view to determine whether the part played by metal uptake by plants is relevant in comparison with the other removal processes. Thirdly, we analysed the parameters to consider for establishing suitable management strategies for CWs and how they affect the whole CW design process. Finally, we propose monitoring and policy measures to facilitate the integration of CWs within Mediterranean industrialised catchments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


In the Mediterranean area, surface waters often have low discharge or renewal rates, hence metal contamination from industrialised catchments can have a high negative impact on the physico-chemical and biological water quality. In a context of climate and anthropological changes, it is necessary to provide an integrative approach for the prevention and control of metal pollution, in order to limit its impact on water resources, biodiversity, trophic network and human health. For this purpose, introduction of constructed wetlands (CWs) between natural aquatic ecosystems and industrialised zones or catchments is a promising strategy for eco-remediation. Analysis of the literature has shown that further research must be done to improve CW design, selection and management of wetland plant species and catchment organisation, in order to ensure the effectiveness of CWs in Mediterranean environments. Firstly, the parameters of basin design that have the greatest influence on metal removal processes must be identified, in order to better focus rhizospheric processes on specific purification objectives. We have summarised in a single diagram the relationships between the design parameters of a CW basin and the physico-chemical and biological processes of metal removal, on the basis of 21 mutually consistent papers. Secondly, in order to optimise the selection and distribution of helophytes in CWs, it is necessary to identify criteria of choice for the plant species that will best fit the remediation objectives and environmental and economic constraints. We have analysed the factors determining plant metal uptake efficiency in CWs on the basis of a qualitative meta-analysis of 13 studies with a view to determine whether the part played by metal uptake by plants is relevant in comparison with the other removal processes. Thirdly, we analysed the parameters to consider for establishing suitable management strategies for CWs and how they affect the whole CW design process. Finally, we propose monitoring and policy measures to facilitate the integration of CWs within Mediterranean industrialised catchments.

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