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Marseille, France

Geniez P.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Sa-Sousa P.,University of Evora | Guillaume C.P.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Cluchier A.,ECO MED | Crochet P.-A.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology

Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are main-tained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Moun-tains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcisvirescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Badiane A.,University Pompeu Fabra | Garcia-Porta J.,University Pompeu Fabra | Cervenka J.,Charles University | Kratochvil L.,Charles University | And 13 more authors.

A molecular phylogeny of the sphaerodactylid geckos of the genus Pristurus is inferred based on an alignment of 1845 base pairs (bp) of concatenated mitochondrial (12S) and nuclear (acm4, cmos, rag1 and rag2) genes for 80 individuals, representing 18 of the 23-26 species, and the three subspecies of P. rupestris. The results indicate that P. rupestris is poly-phyletic and includes two highly divergent clades: the eastern clade, found in coastal Iran and throughout the Hajar Moun-tain range in northern Oman and eastern UAE; and the western clade, distributed from central coastal Oman, through Yemen, Saudi Arabia and north to southern Jordan. Inferred haplotype networks for the four nuclear genes show that the eastern and western clades of "P. rupestris" are highly differentiated and do not share any alleles. Moreover, although the two clades are differentiated by a morphological multivariate analysis, no one character or set of characters was found to be diagnostic. Based on the molecular analysis of specimens from the type locality of P. rupestris rupestris, the name P. rupestris is applied to the eastern clade. The name that should apply to the western clade cannot be clarified until morpho-logical and genetic data for "P. rupestris" is available from the vicinity of Bosaso, Somalia, and therefore we refer to it as Pristurus sp. 1. The phylogenetic tree of Pristurus supports the hypothesis that P. celerrimus is sister to all the other spe-cies in the analyses and that the Socotra Archipelago was independently colonized a minimum of two times. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Dutrieux E.,Creocean | Proisy C.,IRD Montpellier | Fromard F.,Ecolab | Walcker R.,Ecolab | And 3 more authors.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment 2014: The Journey Continues

Mangroves are critical ecosystems given their key role in conserving biodiversity, protecting coastlines from erosion and supporting coastal resources. They may be impacted by oil and gas activities, either directly or indirectly. Restoring them is therefore of prime importance. In the Mahakam Delta (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), oil and gas exploration and production have been conducted for more than 40 years. This industry has operated in a quasi-pristine area barely affected by human activities until the mid 80's. Toward the late 1980's and until 2000, the delta was subject to massive and rapid development of shrimp farming and by 2001, 85% of the delta mangroves were destroyed and most of it replaced by ponds used for aquaculture. By the end of 1990's, shrimp farm productivity in the delta decreased due to a lack of nutrients in ponds and the occurrence of shrimp diseases. Numerous ponds were abandoned in the delta. This economic situation generated social instabilities that could threaten the oil and gas industry in the region. Therefore, in order to better protect mangroves and optimize restoration of damaged areas, Total E&P Indonesie embarked on a mangrove restoration initiative of the Mahakam Delta aimed at understanding and contributing to the restoration processes through both natural recolonization and planting techniques. The general methodology implemented has been to i) describe the land cover using satellite imagery, interpreting aerial photos, conducting field work, and establishing GIS maps, ii) inventory the fauna and flora (including mangroves, birds, mammals, reptiles), iii) monitoring the naturally re-colonized areas, replanted areas and original forest in selected areas. Results show that natural recolonization of a mangrove area can be very quick under certain conditions (subject to availability of seeds and easy access of seeds to the area to be recolonized). But in areas where seeds cannot easily move, or where seed supply is scarce, replanting remains the best option. Social aspects have also to be taken into account given that replanting can promote the local commitment to sustainable environmental conservation. Copyright 2014 , Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source

Nuria R.,IRD Montpellier | Jerome M.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Leonide C.,University Paris Est Creteil | Christine R.,French Natural History Museum | And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry

We developed a synthetic index of biological soil quality (IBQS) based on soil macro-invertebrate community patterns to assess soil quality. In 22 sites representing the diversity of agroecosystems encountered in France, invertebrate communities co-varied significantly with a set of 14 parameters describing the physical and chemical properties of soil (co-inertia, p< 0.001; RV = 0.70). Using hierarchical classification, sites could be separated into four homogeneous groups and, using the 'indicator value' method, 46 indicator taxa characteristic of one or another of these groups were identified. We then used a formula that takes into account the abundance of indicator species and their respective indicator values to score soils from 1 to 20. IBQS was able to detect the effects of management practices on soil quality. Soil quality varied from 6 to 20 in forests, 7 to 9 in pastures and 2 to 9 in crops respectively. This suggests that well-managed crops and pastures may have better soil quality than some forests. Our results confirm that soil macro-invertebrates provide an integrative measure of soil quality and that the proposed index can be used either in short- or long-term monitoring, provided that it is calibrated and validated with respect to the regional context of the study. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Assini S.,University of Pavia | Mondino G.P.,Corso Brianza 3 | Varese P.,ECO MED | Barcella M.,University of Pavia | Bracco F.,University of Pavia
Plant Biosystems

In Italy, Corynephorus communities are distributed along the medium course of the Ticino river and Sesia river and the internal sand dunes of Lomellina (through the Vercelli, Novara and Pavia provinces); these stations represent the southern limit of European distribution of this habitat. A phytosociological study was carried out to gain better knowledge of their composition; of their affinity or diversity against the central European communities; of their distribution and of the main threats to their conservation. Original and literature relevés (114) were elaborated producing a cluster analysis; correspondence analysis (CA), principal component analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test were carried on to characterize the clusters of relevés taking into consideration biological forms, chorological groups, Ellenberg indicator values and floristic groups. Italian Corynephorus communities can be attributed to the following syntaxa: Spergulo vernalis-Corynephoretum canescentis, Spergulo vernalis-Corynephoretum canescentis cladonietosum, Spergulo vernalis-Corynephoretum canescentis silenetosum nutantis and Spergulo vernalis-Corynephoretum canescentis artemisietosum campestris. Italian Corynephorus communities are included in the Habitat 2330 of the EU Habitat Directive. They are threatened by different factors (such as restricted areas of occurrence, alien plant invasion and natural dynamics) and they need to be managed if we want to conserve them. © 2013 Societá Botanica Italiana. Source

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