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Berryville, VA, United States

Garg A.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Maheshwari J.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Mahapatra D.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management | Kumar S.,ECO International
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

End-use electricity efficiency improvements offer an inexpensive way to reduce power shortages. The present study estimates the potential of demand-side management efficiency improvement targeted at (1) short-term efficiency improvement (agricultural pump rectification) that can provide immediate relief, and (2) long-term efficiency improvement (appliance standards such as AC and refrigerator, new agricultural pump purchase and pump replacement) for Gujarat state in India. The methodology includes the calculation of cost of conserved energy for each technology, which works out to be (-1.18)US$ cents/kWh for new agriculture pump sets, 1.03US$ cents/kWh for refrigerators and 5.21US$ cents/kWh for air conditioners. The price of power varies around 1.13US$ cents to 12.1cents/kWh in Gujarat. The annual energy savings from the selected energy-efficient technologies are approximately 8767GWh over a period of 10yr, while the estimated peak power savings are about 1814MW, large enough to eliminate one-fourth of the state's electricity shortages. Also, the estimated CO2 emissions savings are about 7715 Giga grams (Gg) from implementation of the selected energy efficiency measures over a period of 10yr. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Langen T.A.,Clarkson University | Gunson K.E.,ECO International | Scheiner C.A.,Clarkson University | Boulerice J.T.,Clarkson University
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

Road mortality of freshwater turtles can be high enough to imperil populations near roads, thus there is a need to efficiently and accurately locate regions of excessive road-kill along road networks for mitigation. Weekly over 2 years, we drove a 160 km highway circuit in northeastern New York State, USA and recorded the location of all detected road-kill of three freshwater turtle species (Chelydra serpentina, Chrysemys picta, Emydoidea blandingii). We then analyzed the spatial dispersion of road-kill and the road and landscape features associated with road-kill locations. Road-kill was most prevalent at a limited number of short road segments, termed 'hotspots'. The locations of hotspots, as indicated by kernel density analysis, and the peak spatial extent of hotspots (250 m), as indicated by Ripley's K, corresponded to the locations and average lengths of causeways (road segments with wetlands within 100 m on both sides). Hotspots were located at causeways that were greater than 200 m length and characterized by high traffic volumes, close proximity to water, and high forest coverage. We conclude that freshwater turtle road mortality is spatially aggregated at short, severe hotspots, and hotspot locations can be predicted when the locations of wetlands, traffic volumes, and the land-uses bordering roads are known. Hotspot models using these predictors can locate sites along a road network that are the most promising for mitigation to reduce excessive road mortality and maintain connectivity. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Fan H.,Yunnan University | Fan H.,ECO International
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The integration of spectral, textural, and topographic information using a random forest classifier for land-cover mapping in the rugged Nujiang Grand Canyon was investigated in this study. Only a few land-cover categories were accurately discriminated using spectral information exclusively, with an overall accuracy of 0.56 and a kappa coefficient of 0.51. The inclusion of topographic information as additional bands provided higher overall accuracy (0.69) and kappa coefficient (0.65) than topographic correction (overall accuracy, 0.57-0.58; kappa coefficient range, 0.52-0.53), which failed to markedly improve classification accuracy. In contrast with the exclusive use of spectral bands, most of the included land-cover categories were correctly classified using textural features exclusively (overall accuracy, 0.67-0.88; kappa coefficient, 0.63-0.87). In particular, classification based on geostatistical features led to slightly more accurate results than did grey-level co-occurrence matrix parameters. The window size selected for texture calculation markedly affected the texture-based classification accuracy: larger window size yielded higher classification accuracy. However, no optimal window size exists. The inclusion of the topographic bands in the texture images led to an increase in the overall accuracy of 1.1-9.0%, and to an increase in the kappa coefficient of 0.0-10.9%. Thus, for the Nujiang Grand Canyon, topographic information was more important for the discrimination of some land-cover types than spectral and textural information. Among the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral bands, bands 6 and 4 were of greatest importance. The relative importance of textural features generally increased with window size, and a few textural features were of consistently high importance. Although a random forest classifier does not overfit, undertaking feature selection analysis prior to classification may still be valuable. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis.

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a fuel consumption reduction amount calculation device, a fuel consumption reduction amount calculation and display program, a carbon dioxide emission reduction amount calculation device, and a carbon dioxide emission reduction amount calculation and display program, that digitize the fuel consumption reduction amounts or CO SOLUTION: A fuel consumption reduction amount calculation device

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.3.2.2 | Award Amount: 4.66M | Year: 2010

Food waste constitutes around 20% of the domestic waste stream in the EU, with approximately equal quantities arising from food manufacture and catering outlets: if food wastes from agro- and food industries are included an estimated total of 200 Mtonnes/year is available, at around 30% organic dry matter (ODM). Because of the high water content of this material, energy can only effectively be gained through biochemical conversion. The approach best suited to this is anaerobic digestion where yields of 400-450 m3 methane per kg ODM can be achieved. The research explores the ways in which this energy potential can be realised through effective collection, pre-processing and optimisation of the fuel conversion technology, and considers how integration of these aspects with improving conversion efficiencies can maximise the net energy gains. It expands our rapidly-developing fundamental knowledge of syntrophic anaerobic microbial interactions, and applies this to the manipulation of reactor conditions in order to achieve stable operating conditions at high loading rates and volumetric efficiencies. It considers methods of upgrading the gaseous fuel product to extend the range of end user applications and the scales at which this technology can be exploited. It takes into account issues of biosecurity when using this material, and quantifies the environmental benefits associated with nutrient recycling which contribute significantly to indirect energy gains. The research combines techniques of waste audit, feasibility study, laboratory scientific investigation, technical-scale trials, plant monitoring, process modelling, life cycle assessment and energy footprinting in order to deliver recommendations for the valorisation with maximum benefit of this energy source as a second-generation biofuel.

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