Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.3.2.2 | Award Amount: 4.66M | Year: 2010
Food waste constitutes around 20% of the domestic waste stream in the EU, with approximately equal quantities arising from food manufacture and catering outlets: if food wastes from agro- and food industries are included an estimated total of 200 Mtonnes/year is available, at around 30% organic dry matter (ODM). Because of the high water content of this material, energy can only effectively be gained through biochemical conversion. The approach best suited to this is anaerobic digestion where yields of 400-450 m3 methane per kg ODM can be achieved. The research explores the ways in which this energy potential can be realised through effective collection, pre-processing and optimisation of the fuel conversion technology, and considers how integration of these aspects with improving conversion efficiencies can maximise the net energy gains. It expands our rapidly-developing fundamental knowledge of syntrophic anaerobic microbial interactions, and applies this to the manipulation of reactor conditions in order to achieve stable operating conditions at high loading rates and volumetric efficiencies. It considers methods of upgrading the gaseous fuel product to extend the range of end user applications and the scales at which this technology can be exploited. It takes into account issues of biosecurity when using this material, and quantifies the environmental benefits associated with nutrient recycling which contribute significantly to indirect energy gains. The research combines techniques of waste audit, feasibility study, laboratory scientific investigation, technical-scale trials, plant monitoring, process modelling, life cycle assessment and energy footprinting in order to deliver recommendations for the valorisation with maximum benefit of this energy source as a second-generation biofuel.
Fan H.,Yunnan University |
Fan H.,ECO International
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
The integration of spectral, textural, and topographic information using a random forest classifier for land-cover mapping in the rugged Nujiang Grand Canyon was investigated in this study. Only a few land-cover categories were accurately discriminated using spectral information exclusively, with an overall accuracy of 0.56 and a kappa coefficient of 0.51. The inclusion of topographic information as additional bands provided higher overall accuracy (0.69) and kappa coefficient (0.65) than topographic correction (overall accuracy, 0.57-0.58; kappa coefficient range, 0.52-0.53), which failed to markedly improve classification accuracy. In contrast with the exclusive use of spectral bands, most of the included land-cover categories were correctly classified using textural features exclusively (overall accuracy, 0.67-0.88; kappa coefficient, 0.63-0.87). In particular, classification based on geostatistical features led to slightly more accurate results than did grey-level co-occurrence matrix parameters. The window size selected for texture calculation markedly affected the texture-based classification accuracy: larger window size yielded higher classification accuracy. However, no optimal window size exists. The inclusion of the topographic bands in the texture images led to an increase in the overall accuracy of 1.1-9.0%, and to an increase in the kappa coefficient of 0.0-10.9%. Thus, for the Nujiang Grand Canyon, topographic information was more important for the discrimination of some land-cover types than spectral and textural information. Among the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral bands, bands 6 and 4 were of greatest importance. The relative importance of textural features generally increased with window size, and a few textural features were of consistently high importance. Although a random forest classifier does not overfit, undertaking feature selection analysis prior to classification may still be valuable. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis.
Chen L.Q.,ECO International |
Fang L.,ECO International |
Ling J.,Yunnan University |
Ding C.Z.,ECO International |
And 2 more authors.
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2015
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly being used as antimicrobial agents and drug carriers in biomedical fields. However, toxicological information on their effects on red blood cells (RBCs) and the mechanisms involved remain sparse. In this article, we examined the size dependent nanotoxicity of AgNPs using three different characteristic sizes of 15 nm (AgNPs15), 50 nm (AgNPs50), and 100 nm (AgNPs100) against fish RBCs. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that AgNPs exhibited a size effect on their adsorption and uptake by RBCs. The middle sized AgNPs50, compared with the smaller or bigger ones, showed the highest level of adsorption and uptake by the RBCs, suggesting an optimal size of ∼50 nm for passive uptake by RBCs. The toxic effects determined based on the hemolysis, membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme production were fairly size and dose dependent. In particular, the smallest sized AgNPs15 displayed a greater ability to induce hemolysis and membrane damage than AgNPs50 and AgNPs100. Such cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs should be attributed to the direct interaction of the nanoparticle with the RBCs, resulting in the production of oxidative stress, membrane injury, and subsequently hemolysis. Overall, the results suggest that particle size is a critical factor influencing the interaction between AgNPs and the RBCs. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
ECO International | Date: 2012-12-03
A selective collection system for recyclable containers comprising of a housing part, a material identification device, a control device, a collection part and a shredding device and/or a compressing device. The material identification device identifies the input material and transmits a signal to the control device, which categorizes the input material into a plastic bottle, a can, or other material based on the signal. The shredding device receives and shreds the input material if the input material is identified as a plastic bottle by the material identification device. The compressing device receives and compresses the input material if the input material is identified as a can. Other materials are collected by the collection part without any processing. The control device controls the overall operation of the selective collection system and comprises a display to display advertisements, messages and/or announcements.
ECO International | Date: 2010-12-29
The Inventor provides a process for the treatment of an effluent stream comprising:(i) passing the effluent stream into an activated sludge basin;(ii) removing at least a portion of activated sludge from the activated sludge basin;(iii) pressurising at least a portion of the removed activated sludge in the presence of a gas to form pressurised activated sludge;(iv) flash depressurising the pressurised activated sludge to form depressurised sludge; and(v) returning at least a portion of the depressurised sludge to the activated sludge basin.
ECO International | Date: 2014-08-19
ECO International and Japan Eco Supporter Co. | Date: 2013-03-29
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a fuel consumption reduction amount calculation device, a fuel consumption reduction amount calculation and display program, a carbon dioxide emission reduction amount calculation device, and a carbon dioxide emission reduction amount calculation and display program, that digitize the fuel consumption reduction amounts or CO_(2 )emission reduction amounts of a vehicle or a drier or the other heating appliances. SOLUTION: A fuel consumption reduction amount calculation device 10 inputs base line data 14 and 16 of a vehicle before mounting a combustion improvement device and project data 18 and 20 of the vehicle after mounting the combustion improvement device, and displays a value calculated by subtracting annual fuel consumption amount taken from project data from a value calculated by dividing annual travel distance taken from the project data by the fuel consumption rate taken from the base line data. Also, a carbon dioxide emission reduction amount calculation device 34 displays a value calculated by subtracting an emission amount that is calculated by multiplying an emission coefficient by the annual fuel consumption amount taken from project data from the emission amount calculated by multiplying the annual fuel consumption amount taken from the project data by the annual travel distance taken from the project data divided by the fuel consumption rate taken from the base line data.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2011.3.1.9-4 | Award Amount: 1.08M | Year: 2011
Europe has a leading position in eco-innovation patents and emerging technologies. Although the EU achieves a remarkably high annual growth rate of 16% in eco-innovation, transfer to SMEs is rather low. Technology transfer to SMEs would be important to reduce EUs industrial pollution. According to OECD and EC reports, awareness for RTD results is low. There is a need to increase technology transfer at the EU level. A common platform at the European level will speed up promotion and transfer of existing technologies. The platform will focus on Framework Programmes results and other EC funding initiatives. In the proposed project, it will be developed a dynamic platform (EcoWeb) for enterprises, especially SMEs, to take up eco-innovation results from EU funded research. This will increase uptake of novel technologies, spur economic growth, and will result in an increase of SME interest in the FP. EcoWeb will bring companies close to relevant eco-innovation EU results through semantic-web-technology and existing eco-innovation networks and multipliers. Based on semantic-web-technology EcoWeb will collect and structure information whilst multipliers will disseminate results through existing channels. In particular EcoWeb will achieve: collect and structure RTD results on eco-innovation; match innovations to the technical needs of the SMEs. bring innovations to SMEs instead of having the SMEs looking for them.
ECO International | Date: 2016-08-28