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Badri Ahmadi H.,Dalian University of Technology | Kusi-Sarpong S.,Dalian University of Technology | Kusi-Sarpong S.,Eco Consult | Rezaei J.,Technical University of Delft
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2017

A truly sustainable organization needs to take the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability into account. Although the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability have been examined by many scholars and practitioners, thus far, the social dimension has been received less attention in literature and in practice, in particular in developing countries. Social sustainability enables other sustainability initiatives and overlooking this dimension can have a serious adverse impact across supply chains. To address this issue, this study proposes a framework for investigating the social sustainability of supply chains in manufacturing companies. To show the applicability and efficiency of the proposed framework, a sample of 38 experts was used to evaluate and prioritize social sustainability criteria, using a multi-criteria decision-making method called the ‘best worst method’ (BWM). The criteria are ranked according to their average weight obtained through BWM. The respondents view ‘contractual stakeholders influence’ as the most important social sustainability criterion. The results of this study help industry managers, decision-makers and practitioners decide where to focus their attention during the implementation stage, to increase social sustainability in their organizational supply chain and move towards sustainable development. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Edwards S.,University of Pretoria | Al Awaji M.,Eco Consult | Eid E.,Eco Consult | Attum O.,Indiana University Southeast
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2017

Desert conditions such as high ambient temperatures and scant rainfall result in water being a rare and essential resource for many species, and consequentially artificial water sources are often installed in such environments. Permanent water has the potential to influence multiple aspects of a species' ecology, such as movement, activity, predation and thermoregulation. Given the importance and potential impact of artificial water sources, this study used camera traps to record mammal presence and activity at two artificial water sources in Dana Nature Reserve, Jordan. Seven mammal species, each with distinct activity patterns, were recorded at the water sources, including Nubian ibex, a species of conservation concern. Evidence of temporal resource partitioning was recorded between all species, with the exception of porcupine and striped hyena. Due to the small size of the water sources, temporal partitioning between species may be used as a means of avoiding drinking in close proximity to other species, including potential predators. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Gecheva G.,Plovdiv University | Yurukova L.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Cheshmedjiev S.,Eco Consult
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The composition of aquatic bryophyte and vascular plant assemblages, and 4 environmental variables (water velocity, shading, mean depth, and substrate type), together with altitude, ecological status, and river type were monitored at 223 sites along 204 rivers during 2009 in the Pontic Province and Eastern Balkan Ecoregions, Bulgaria. The relationships between macrophytes themselves and the parameters studied were tested. Forty-nine bryophytes and 86 vascular plants were identified. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants are in inverse correlation. Bryophytes occurred mainly in conditions of higher altitude and ecological status; at the same time vascular plants were found in lowland river types defined by lower status and altitude. CCA also established that flow velocity was of prime importance for bryophyte distribution, while the substrate type had no significant correlation. In contrast, most vascular plants depended considerably on substrate and prefer finer types. The data also showed that shading explained the major part of vascular species variance. This study represents an important contribution to environmental monitoring and biodiversity conservation programmes. For the first time relationships between 135 macrophyte taxa and 7 environmental variables were tested. Abiotic factors were highlighted with major influence on river bryophyte and vascular plant communities. © TÜBITAK.

Gecheva G.,Plovdiv University | Yurukova L.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Cesa M.,University of Trieste | Cheshmedjiev S.,Eco Consult
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2015

Aquatic mosses and sediments were monitored along Topolnitsa River Basin (Bulgaria), copper-producing and mining region. Six mosses were applied as biomonitors: Bryum turbinatum, Fontinalis antipyretica, Leptodictyum riparium, Platyhypnidium riparioides, Rhizomnium punctatum and Sciuro-hypnum plumosum. Background levels were determined for both plants and fine fraction of sediments collected from an unpolluted site. Contamination factors (CFs) and metal pollution index at each site were presented. The highest sediment enrichment with toxic elements was found in Zlatishka River. Strong increase above background levels showed all 13 heavy metals and toxic elements in biomonitors from stations at Zlatishka and Pirdopska rivers. The two moss species adopted as biomonitors for the first time – Bryum turbinatum and Rhizomnium punctatum – showed high CFs for several heavy metals and contributed to chemical pollution pattern assessment. The parallel use of mosses and sediments in the monitoring study, as well as the applied statistical tools, led to the conclusion that mosses as higher plants revealed pollution patterns not detected by sediments. Results also showed that in a seriously contaminated aquatic environment, which requires rapid assessment, different moss species can be applied for water-monitoring purposes to present preliminary picture of pollution patterns and to direct further studies. © 2013 Società Botanica Italiana.

This short note describes how Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus and Herring Gulls L argentatus regularly feed at a glass-processing plant near their colonies. The factory is situated in the northern part of the Dutch Delta, in the southwest of the Netherlands, in an area where almost 5500 pairs of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls were found breeding in 2013, divided over several island colonies (Fig. 1). The factory mainly processes used glass jars with leftover food. The gulls take glass fragments, with a preference for glass with remnants of peanut butter and pasta sauce. Some gulls damage their crop or tongue when they regurgitate pellets of glass fragments. However, these wounds seem to heal quickly and the birds are in good condition.

Huig N.,Eco Consult | Buijs R.-J.,Eco Consult | Kleyheeg E.,University Utrecht
Bird Study | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Capsule: Large numbers of Herring Gulls Larus argentatus and Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus from a traditional colony in the Netherlands visit an urban area for food in the chick rearing period, causing nuisance while doing so. Aims: To assess the potential contribution of large gulls breeding in a traditional colony to gull–human conflicts in cities. Methods: Colour-ringed gulls from a nearby colony were counted in the study area throughout the 2014 breeding season. The average numbers observed daily per species and sex were compared between different breeding phases. Results: Fluctuations in numbers of both species could be explained by breeding phase. Numbers of females of both species and male Lesser Black-backed Gulls dropped significantly during laying and incubation. Numbers peaked post-hatching, coinciding with increased engagement in nuisance events and more frequent displacements within the study area. Conclusion: Large gulls from a traditional colony frequently visited the urban study area, especially when food demand for chick provisioning was high, suggesting that city visits are motivated by accessibility of urban food. The proportion of rooftop breeding gulls in this area is low. Therefore, measures to avoid nuisance should focus on reducing food availability rather than controlling gull breeding. © 2016 British Trust for Ornithology.

Al-Assa'd T.A.,Eco Consult | Abdulla F.A.,Jordan University of Science and Technology
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

Mujib watershed is an important groundwater basin which is considered a major source for drinking and irrigation water in Jordan. Increased dependence on groundwater needs improved aquifer management with respect to understanding deeply recharge and discharge issues, planning rates withdrawal, and facing water quality problems arising from industrial and agricultural contamination. The efficient management of this source depends on reliable estimates of the recharge to groundwater and is needed in order to protect Mujib basin from depletion. Artificial groundwater recharge was investigated in this study as one of the important options to face water scarcity and to improve groundwater storage in the aquifer. A groundwater model based on the MODFLOW program, calibrated under both steady- and unsteady-state conditions, was used to investigate different groundwater management scenarios that aim at protecting the Mujib basin. The scenarios include variations of abstraction levels combined with different artificial groundwater recharge quantities. The possibilities of artificial groundwater recharge from existing and proposed dams as well as reclaimed municipal wastewater were investigated. Artificial recharge options considered in this study are mainly through injecting water directly to the aquifer and through infiltration from reservoir. Three scenarios were performed to predict the aquifer system response under different artificial recharge options (low, moderate, and high) which then compared with no action (recharge) scenario. The best scenario that provides a good recovery for the groundwater table and that can be feasible is founded to be by reducing current abstraction rates by 20% and implementing the moderate artificial recharge rates of 26 million(M)m3/year. The model constructed in this study helps decision makers and planners in selecting optimum management schemes suitable for such arid and semi-arid regions. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Al-Assa'd T.,Eco Consult | Sauer J.,University of Kent
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This paper aims to measure the relative performance of Jordan's water utilities for water sector (WS) and wastewater sector (WWS), and to investigate the major factors behind their inefficiencies. DEA (non-parametric method) and Tobit model (parametric method) were used at two stages. At the first stage DEA was used to evaluate the utilities' efficiency and to investigate the utilities' scale effect on efficiency. At the second stage Tobit model (regression) is applied to determine the impact of the non-controllable factors on utilities' inefficiencies where the efficiency score is the dependent variable in the regression. The results of DEA showed that there is a potential to reduce inputs level: water supply and operational expense (OPEX) for WS, and treated wastewater and OPEX for WWS, by around 15-20 and 23-27%, respectively. Aqaba and Jarash utilities are the most efficient utilities in the WS, while it is Amman utility in the WWS. The utility size has relatively moderate effect on the relative performance. It is concluded that the medium utility size for WS and large utility size for WWS is the most appropriate. Tobit model results indicate that commercialization activities have a clear positive impact on efficiency improvement for both sectors. © IWA Publishing 2010.

Eco Consult | Date: 2015-02-11

The present invention relates to a method for the production of a meat substitute composition based on solid state fermentation, wherein the method comprises the steps of:(i)providing a substrate having a moisture content of above 50 % (w/w) comprising two different ingredients each having a different texture;(ii)introducing to said substrate an edible mushroom mycelium; and (iii)allowing said mycelium to grow in said substrate for a period which is sufficient to saturate the substrate with mycelium to provide the meat substitute composition.

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