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Oberaula, Germany

Al-Assa'd T.,Eco Consult | Sauer J.,University of Kent
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This paper aims to measure the relative performance of Jordan's water utilities for water sector (WS) and wastewater sector (WWS), and to investigate the major factors behind their inefficiencies. DEA (non-parametric method) and Tobit model (parametric method) were used at two stages. At the first stage DEA was used to evaluate the utilities' efficiency and to investigate the utilities' scale effect on efficiency. At the second stage Tobit model (regression) is applied to determine the impact of the non-controllable factors on utilities' inefficiencies where the efficiency score is the dependent variable in the regression. The results of DEA showed that there is a potential to reduce inputs level: water supply and operational expense (OPEX) for WS, and treated wastewater and OPEX for WWS, by around 15-20 and 23-27%, respectively. Aqaba and Jarash utilities are the most efficient utilities in the WS, while it is Amman utility in the WWS. The utility size has relatively moderate effect on the relative performance. It is concluded that the medium utility size for WS and large utility size for WWS is the most appropriate. Tobit model results indicate that commercialization activities have a clear positive impact on efficiency improvement for both sectors. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source


Al-Assa'd T.A.,Eco Consult | Abdulla F.A.,Jordan University of Science and Technology
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

Mujib watershed is an important groundwater basin which is considered a major source for drinking and irrigation water in Jordan. Increased dependence on groundwater needs improved aquifer management with respect to understanding deeply recharge and discharge issues, planning rates withdrawal, and facing water quality problems arising from industrial and agricultural contamination. The efficient management of this source depends on reliable estimates of the recharge to groundwater and is needed in order to protect Mujib basin from depletion. Artificial groundwater recharge was investigated in this study as one of the important options to face water scarcity and to improve groundwater storage in the aquifer. A groundwater model based on the MODFLOW program, calibrated under both steady- and unsteady-state conditions, was used to investigate different groundwater management scenarios that aim at protecting the Mujib basin. The scenarios include variations of abstraction levels combined with different artificial groundwater recharge quantities. The possibilities of artificial groundwater recharge from existing and proposed dams as well as reclaimed municipal wastewater were investigated. Artificial recharge options considered in this study are mainly through injecting water directly to the aquifer and through infiltration from reservoir. Three scenarios were performed to predict the aquifer system response under different artificial recharge options (low, moderate, and high) which then compared with no action (recharge) scenario. The best scenario that provides a good recovery for the groundwater table and that can be feasible is founded to be by reducing current abstraction rates by 20% and implementing the moderate artificial recharge rates of 26 million(M)m3/year. The model constructed in this study helps decision makers and planners in selecting optimum management schemes suitable for such arid and semi-arid regions. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source


Hallgrimsson G.T.,University of Iceland | Hallgrimsson G.T.,Reykjanes Environmental Research Institute | Gunnarsson H.V.,Bjarkaras 23 | Torfason O.,Alfholt 34 | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2012

On the species level, the non-breeding distribution and the migration patterns of most European birds are well known. In contrast, the knowledge of the contribution of different breeding populations to particular nonbreeding sites (migratory connectivity) is far more limited. We studied the non-breeding distribution of individually colour-ringed Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus graellsii) from Iceland and sought information on their migration pattern in respect to other populations (leap-frog, chain migration, random mix). Most winter resightings (94%) were from the southern part of the known winter range (Iberian Peninsula and northwest Africa). No statistical difference was found according to age on the latitudinal winter distribution, although 1st winter birds were on average 2° further south. Both 2nd and 3rd calendar year (cy) birds performed a northward spring migration,but spent the summer at lower latitudes than adults. The autumn migration for adults was earlier compared with 1 st cy birds. A comparison of resightings of birds ringed in Iceland and in two projects from the Netherlands showed that these populations are not likely to contribute much to the wintering population in the UK. The proportion of winter resightings from Icelandic and Dutch populations showed that 44-65% were from the Iberian Peninsula. However, Dutch birds were much more likely to be seen in France (18-48 vs. 0.4%), but Icelandic birds were more likely to be seen in Africa (29 vs. 6-16%). These results indicate that Icelandic birds to some extent leap-frog more southerly populations. © Dt. Ornithologen- Gesellschaft e.V. 2012. Source


Gyimesi A.,Bureau Waardenburg | Boudewijn T.J.,Bureau Waardenburg | Buijs R.-J.,Eco Consult | Shamoun-Baranes J.Z.,University of Amsterdam | And 5 more authors.
Bird Study | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Capsule: Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus breeding 30 km from the coast in the Netherlands focussed entirely on terrestrial food sources and reached relatively high breeding success. Aim: To gain insight in the foraging ecology, habitat use and breeding performance of inland-breeding Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Methods: We received data from seven birds fitted with global positioning system (GPS) loggers. The colony was frequently visited to collect pellets and boluses and to monitor reproductive success, mortality and growth rate of chicks. Results: The GPS data revealed that mainly terrestrial habitats were used, 98% of these GPS positions were within 25 km of the colony. Refuse dumps were the most preferred sites, but also agricultural fields and freshwater bodies were often visited. Only two of the 710 recorded trips were directed to the North Sea. The pellet and bolus analyses confirmed the GPS data: no marine food remains were found. Breeding success of birds in the enclosure was relatively high, with 90% of eggs hatched and 51% of chicks fledged (1.6 chicks/pair). Conclusions: Relying on terrestrial food is feasible when sources are available in the vicinity of the colony. We conclude that Lesser Black-backed Gulls could theoretically shift towards inland breeding after a fishery discards ban. © 2016 British Trust for Ornithology. Source


Gecheva G.,Plovdiv University | Yurukova L.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Cesa M.,University of Trieste | Cheshmedjiev S.,Eco Consult
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2015

Aquatic mosses and sediments were monitored along Topolnitsa River Basin (Bulgaria), copper-producing and mining region. Six mosses were applied as biomonitors: Bryum turbinatum, Fontinalis antipyretica, Leptodictyum riparium, Platyhypnidium riparioides, Rhizomnium punctatum and Sciuro-hypnum plumosum. Background levels were determined for both plants and fine fraction of sediments collected from an unpolluted site. Contamination factors (CFs) and metal pollution index at each site were presented. The highest sediment enrichment with toxic elements was found in Zlatishka River. Strong increase above background levels showed all 13 heavy metals and toxic elements in biomonitors from stations at Zlatishka and Pirdopska rivers. The two moss species adopted as biomonitors for the first time – Bryum turbinatum and Rhizomnium punctatum – showed high CFs for several heavy metals and contributed to chemical pollution pattern assessment. The parallel use of mosses and sediments in the monitoring study, as well as the applied statistical tools, led to the conclusion that mosses as higher plants revealed pollution patterns not detected by sediments. Results also showed that in a seriously contaminated aquatic environment, which requires rapid assessment, different moss species can be applied for water-monitoring purposes to present preliminary picture of pollution patterns and to direct further studies. © 2013 Società Botanica Italiana. Source

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